Category Archives: Radiology

Artificial Intelligence for Radiology

Artificial Intelligence in Radiology

Introduction: Artificial intelligence (AI) will bring changes to the professional life of radiologists, as well as changing many other aspects of our lives. Since the invention of electricity, the internet and, more recently, artificial intelligence, the technologies of general use have made it possible for societies to progress and improve their quality of life.

Artificial intelligence and machine learning tools have the potential to analyse large data sets and extract meaningful information to improve patient outcomes, a skill that is also useful in radiology and pathology.

The images obtained by the MRI machines, the computed tomography (CT) scanners and the radiographs, as well as the biopsy samples, allow the doctors to see the internal functioning of the human body.

Factor Effecting

  • Abundance of data
  • Development of artificial neural networks
  • Increased affordability of the hardware

The future of radiology augmented with Artificial Intelligence

Radiologists are not familiar with Artificial Intelligence, pioneering work in the perception of medical images in the 80s. We are experts in domains in medical imaging, medical physics and radiation safety. But in the last 6 to 12 years, there have been substantial innovations in obtaining images from deep learning methods of image classification. Today’s artificial neural networks have rates of accuracy that surpass those of human radiologists in narrow-based tasks, such as nodule detection The first step in formulating a strategy is to define our capabilities and identify the competitive forces that represent a threat. We are facing competition from other medical specialties who spend more time interacting with patients and who can choose to buy AI technologies. We also face competition from suppliers of equipment that make imaging devices, such as CT scanners.

General use cases, potential impact and implementation strategy

They can be divided into task-based categories:

Detection and prediction automation

Intelligence augmentation

Precision diagnostics and big data

Radiological decision support systems

Children’s (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

17Radiology and Oncology 2019 today announced an important milestone in computed tomography (CT) scanning for the centre in Abu Dhabi.

Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless diagnostic Process that uses special X-ray tools to produce complete photographs of your child’s blood vessels, bones, soft tissues and internal organs. It may be used to help diagnose abdominal pain or evaluate injury after trauma.

What is Children’s CT?

Most commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is an indicative therapeutic test that, like conventional X-rays, generates multiple images or pictures of the core of the body.

The cross-sectional illustrations produced during a CT scan can be reformatted in various planes, and can even produce three-dimensional images. These photographs can be observed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD.

CT pictures of internal organs, delicate tissue and veins give more prominent part than regular X-rays, particularly of blood vessels acnes.

CT scan might be directed on babies, new-born children and young people.

Some common uses of the system

  • CT is utilized to help analyse a wide assortment of circumstances because of torment or weakness.
  • CT may also be performed to evaluate blood vessels throughout the body.
  • CT is the most commonly used imaging method for evaluating the chest
  • It is used to obtain very detailed pictures of the heart and blood vessels in children, even new-born infants.
  • CT is well-suited for imaging diseases or impairment of vital organs in the stomach including the kidney, spleen and the liver.
  • CT scans can help in detect sores or tumours in the pelvis and assess for masses in the urinary region
  • CT is an added example of new medical technology to help doctors specifically to diagnose disease. Patients with heart disease require specific diagnoses, and they frequently want them quick.

Cancer: Establishing metastasis

Human VRK1 Is an Early Response Gene and Its Loss Causes a Block in Cell Cycle Progression??Radiology
In mammalian cells, the regulatory proteins that control the cell cycle are necessary due to the requirements of living in a heterogeneous environment of cellular interactions and growth factors. VRK1 is a new serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates several transcription factors and is associated with proliferation phenotypes.

Scientists have discovered that a protein called VRK1 could help cancer take root in new parts of the body. It was discovered that VRK1 is necessary for the mesenchymal to epithelial transition, which scientists suspect may be important for the establishment of metastases. The expression of the VRK1 gene is activated by the addition of serum to the cells deprived of food, which indicates that it is required for the exit of the G0 phase and the entry in G1; a response that parallels the re-expression of MYC, FOS and CCND1 genes (cyclin D1), suggesting that VRK1 is an early response gene. The expression of the VRK1 gene is also closed by serum extraction.

The promoter of the human VRK1 gene cloned in a luciferase reporter responds similarly to serum. In response to serum, the expression level of the VRK1 protein has a positive correlation with cell proliferation markers such as phosphorylated Rb or PCNA, and is inversely correlated with cell cycle inhibitors such as p27. Removal of VRK1 by siRNA results in a G1 block in cell division and in the loss of phosphorylated Rb, cyclin D1 and other proliferation markers. The elimination of VRK1 by siRNA induces a reduction of cell proliferation.. VRK1 is colocalized with p63 in proliferating areas of squamous epithelium, and identifies a subpopulation in the basal layer.

They observed that cells with high levels of VRK1 were more apt to form cell-to-cell connections and had lower levels of mesenchymal markers that are often present in cancer cells. On the contrary, the cells seemed to undergo the opposite transition, from mesenchymal to epithelial. The cells were much less likely to migrate. If high levels of VRK1 caused cancer cells to migrate more slowly, perhaps VRK1 was necessary to allow cells to colonize a new area of ​​the body.

Significance

VRK1 is an immediate early response gene required for entry into G1, and due to its involvement in normal cell proliferation and division, it could be a new target for the development of inhibitors of cell proliferation. In addition, VRK1 may one day serve as a biomarker for aggressive cancers, which could inform oncologists as they decide on more advanced or conservative treatments.

Brain scans show why people get aggressive after the drink

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MRI study highlights how sections of the brain that rage aggression shut off when people intake alcohol.

Scientist and Researcher Professionals have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigates that measure blood circulation in the brain to completely explain why people often become belligerent and stringent after dissipating alcohol. After barely a couple of drinks, the researchers remarked variations in the performance of the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the part commonly associated with moderating a person’s levels of aggressiveness.

According to most opinions, alcohol-related aggressiveness is affected by alterations in the prefrontal cortex. The members were each offered two drinks comprising vodka or placebo drinks without any alcohol.

 While resting in an MRI scanner, the members later had to compete in a task which has constantly been practiced over the past 50 years to recognize levels of aggressiveness in acknowledgement to inducement.

The functional magnetic resonance imaging allowed the researchers to see which areas of the brain were triggered when the task was performed.

They could also distinguish the variation in scans between members who had drunk alcohol and those who hadn’t. Being provoked was found to have no impact on participants’ neural acknowledgements. Yet, when acting aggressively, there was a dip in activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brains of those who had applied alcoholic drinks. This dampening influence was also observed in the regions of the cerebellum that are associated reward. Also, increased activity was noted in the hippocampus, the part of the brain correlated with people’s memory.

 The consequences are mostly compatible with a developing body of research about the neural source of an attack, and how it is triggered by changes in the way that the prefrontal cortex, the limbic system and reward-related regions of the brain function. The results of the current study are also consistent with several psychological theories of alcohol-related aggression.

 Radiology and Oncology 2019  planning can be a complete process comprising of a number of health-care experts, including researchers and consultants (radiologists and oncologists),nurses, radiographers and other technicians at the 3rd  World congress on Radiology and Oncology going to be held at Abu Dhabi, UAE

Handheld probe images photoreceptors in children

1Researchers have developed a hand-held probe that can obtain images of individual photoreceptors in babies’ eyes. The technology, based on adaptive optics, will make it easier for doctors and researchers to observe these cells to diagnose eye diseases and make early detection of diseases and traumas related to the brain.

Photoreceptors are specialized neurons that comprise cells that are sensitive to the light of the retina, an extension of the central nervous system located in the back of the eye. The retina sends signals to the brain through the optic nerve, which then processes the visual information. Earlier examinations have revealed that neurodegenerative disorders, like as Alzheimer’s, as well as traumatic brain injuries and disorders, such as concussions, can treat the neural structures of the retina.

After studies, professionals commonly work with AOSLO (adaptive optical scanning laser ophthalmoscope), that is a non-invasive device that provides  higher resolution as the comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Other researchers are saying that the wavefront sensor can be replaced by an algorithm because previous algorithms have not been fast and active or robust enough to be used in a handheld method.

The algorithm we develop is much faster than the previous techniques and just as accurate. The tool was tested in a clinical trial with some adults and children, where the team demonstrated its ability to capture detailed images of photoreceptors near the fovea: the center of the retina where the photoreceptors are smaller and the vision sharper.

Our new tool is fast and light so that doctors can take it directly to their patients, and the probe allows us to collect images quickly, even if there is movement. These capabilities allow us to open the group of patients who could benefit from this technology.

Before researchers prepare for large-scale clinical trials, they plan to incorporate additional imaging modes to detect other diseases.

Stem cell therapies for Glaucoma: New Trend in Neuroprotection

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Glaucoma is the main cause of blindness worldwide as a generic form of optic neuropathy. Presently, there is no exact remedy for glaucoma. Damage to optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells caused by it is everlasting. As the stem cells can divide indefinitely and separate into various cell types, so they can be used easily for cell-replacement therapy. Recent innovations in stem cell research shows generation of pluripotent stem cells by reprogramming technology from adult somatic cells and these have opened new therapeutic potentials.

 Eye spy – Retinal Stem Cells

The retina of the eye is an important tissue which senses light and then sends the visual info to the brain. Any damage to these retinal cells can cause various eye diseases such as glaucoma and macular degeneration, that can eventually lead to blindness and vision loss. Researchers are in a way to find a replacement or preservation of damaged retinal cells to treat these eye diseases. Stem cells can be useful because they can be triggered to turn into any type of cell. Scientists guided stem cells into becoming retina cells successfully in a laboratory in 2010. It is expected that they could be delivered into the damaged eye as a substitute and be preserved damaged retina cells later.

 So, in another way, stem cells may be helpful for glaucoma patients. They can be turned into trabecular meshwork cells in the front of the eye and resettled in a way to lower the pressure of eye. Again, this might be a motivating approach but is not basically about vision restoration. To restore and protect the vision, stem cells should be applied in the back of the eye, at the retina. Thus, stem cells may have a greater impact. Firstly, they may guard the retinal ganglion cells from degenerating providing a neuroprotective effect early in the disease. Secondly, when patients have lost significant numbers of optic nerve axons and retinal ganglion cells, leading to lose the vision, stem cells may be beneficial to replace the gone ganglion cells and reestablish eye to brain connections. This method of regrooving optic nerve fibers back to the brain is the most challenging but it is also the most interesting technique.

 Though researchers have had achievement in isolating and maintaining retina stem cells in the laboratory previously, there are still many problems that is required to overcome, like the delivery method of stem cells, integration of them with remaining cells inside the eye and eliminate the chance of immune rejection. However, ongoing researches on biomaterials may recover the stem cell integration and may overcome these hurdles.

Water dynamics indicate tumor status

tumor (003)

For the measurement of tumor state outwardly using tissue samples for the study, researchers have revealed a technique based on magnetic resonance imaging of entire body segments. This technique is using for the measurement of proton nuclear resonance dispersion profiles in low magnetic fields, which exposes the water exchange rate of the tumor cells. Thus, tumor growth can be observed rapidly and noninvasively.

Whenever we used high-field MRI using clinically,  It can produce images of tumors with excellent and superior spatial resolution. The images are obtained by a fixed magnetic field and expose relevant data on the tumor morphology.

 The researcher practiced a field-cycling nuclear magnetic resonance setup to measure the nuclear relaxation speeds at low magnetic fields and found a sharp relationship between the water dynamics and those tumor types.

NMR fast field cycling techniques measure the relaxation time of protons, the dispersion profiles, after a sequence of magnetic cycles in a magnetic field. Depending on the strength of the magnetic field, different proton conditions can be probed.

In this study, the team used an adapted NMR instrument, which switches between different field strengths, for data acquisition on tumors in animal models.

Later monitoring the kinetics of the curves, the researchers classified three underlying forms:

  1. Quiet water exchange flow
  2. fast replacement
  3. A between exchange rate with contributions from both intra and extracellular sections.

An active exchange shows a high metabolic flow and thus a high action of the tumor cell. This enhanced metabolic action is essential for aggressive and very extremely metastatic tumor cells. The tumor cells reduce their high metabolic pressure by an enhanced water exchange with the surface of the cell. This parameter is now directly obtainable with this method, as the experts have proved.

The specialists describe the process as “a possibility for new diagnostic opportunities in oncology.”

Sensor for the most important human cancer gene

Cancer sensor (002)

The molecular mechanisms indicator performs being a TP53 sensor.TP53 sensor control and regulate the proper human genome functioning. A non-functional TP53 gene will start the sensor, which initiates the cell destruction. Cancer is produced by variations and mutation in the human genome. A mutation is the alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism or different genetic components

Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes start to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation.

In 60% of all human tumors, the TP53 tumor suppressor gene is no longer functional, being the most frequently mutated cancer gene. Scientists concluded that the formation of a TP53 sensor could remove the tumor formation.

To achieve this, they designed a genetic element that makes cell function dependent on normal TP53. If the TP53 function is interrupted, the sensor is activated and triggers cell death. We treat cancer cells long after the transformation process, so therapy is often too late to eliminate all the cancer cells in the body and, because of additional mutations, therapy-resistant clones emerge quickly. some cancer cells.

The TP53 sensor provides for the initial time active beginning stages of mediation. Our conclusions determine that cells with TP53 mutations can be selectively identified and recognized, so we can easily eliminated at an initial stage. Consequently, the transformation method is stopped. The researchers propose to use their primary findings to generate new cancer diagnoses and found a method of protection against -term cancer mutations.