Category Archives: Psychiatry

Medications for Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder 2018Bipolar Disorder, also known as manic depression, is a mental disorder which causes periods of abnormally elevated mood (i.e., Mania) or the periods of depression. It affects approximately 1% of the global population and the stats are increasing day by day. Hence, it is an active area of research.

The causes are not clearly understood, but both environmental factors (such as child abuse, long-term stress, addictions, etc.) and the genetic factors play a role. Even the genes with the small effect are involved. The neurological conditions such traumatic brain injury may also lead to bipolar disorder, but it’s not very common.

The treatment commonly includes the psychotherapy (such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) as well as the Medications. Medications are an essential part of the treatment for Bipolar Disorder. This helps to keep the periods or the moods in balance enabling the person to live a normal life. They do not cure the disorder but helps to stabilize the condition.  Numbers of medication used to treat Bipolar Disorder. Some of them help to fight the manic episodes and others prevent the episodes of depression.

  • Mood Stabilizers: They are used for long-term mood stabilization but are unable to quickly treat acute bipolar depression. The examples include lithium, and the anticonvulsants like carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproic acid. By far, lithium is the most effective medication of all. They treat bipolar depressions, acute manic episodes and prevent relapses. It also reduces the suicidal risk and deaths in people with bipolar disorder.
  • Antipsychotics: Also known as neuroleptics, or major tranquilizers, principally they are used in conditions of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder. They are effective for the short-term treatment of both manic and depressive episodes of the bipolar and hence, are considered to be more superior to the lithium and other anticonvulsants. Olanzapine is an example of an antipsychotic drug. Now doctors prescribe new antipsychotic drugs including Aripiprazole (Abilify), Quetiapine fumarate (Seroquel), Ziprasidone (Geodon), Lurasidone (Latuda), Asenapine (Saphris), Cariprazine (Vraylar), Olanzapine (Zyprexa).
  • Medication for Bipolar Depression or Antidepressant drugs: In the treatment of bipolar disorder, antidepressants are not prescribed to use alone as they may trigger the manic episode. It is usually prescribed along with a mood stabilizer or antipsychotic drug.
  • Others: Several other medications such as anti-anxiety medication, sleep medications, benzodiazepines, omega 3 fatty acids may have some beneficial effects in certain conditions.
  • Side Effects: Like any other drug, bipolar medications also have some side effects and the symptoms vary depending on the medication. They include nausea, tremors, hair loss, weight gain, liver damage, kidney damage, diarrhea, skin problems, and several other conditions.
  • Recommendations: As the medications for bipolar are very powerful drugs, it should always be taken according to the doctor’s recommendation for the given period of time. The abrupt withdraw of medicine without Doctor’s approval can be very dangerous.

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

HUMAN ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGYHuman Anatomy and Physiology is the combined discipline to explore the human systems structural arrangement and their mandatory functions. Human Anatomy is the study of the morphology of Human beings. It describes the structural alignment of human body parts. Human Physiology is nothing but the study of biological functions of the human body. The study of human body involves Cell-Biology-study of cell structure and functions, Histology-Study of tissues and their types, Embryology-study of the embryo which is an unborn or un-hatched offspring. In this manner, many minute structures unite to balance the Homeostasis of the human body which is the optimum range of sugar and oxygen levels in the human blood.

Anatomy involves the study of body parts from cell to histological state. Each body part is an assembly of the infinite number of cells that joins together to form tissues, the infinite number of tissues combines to form organs, and those organs form systems that ultimately forms an organisms which we called as living being i.e., Humans. The different systems of Human Body are Circulatory system-Heart, Digestive system-Stomach, Endocrine system-Endocrine glands, Lymphatic system-lymphatic nodes, Musculoskeletal system-Muscles attached to bones, Nervous system-Brain, Reproductive system-Male and Female Reproductive Organs, Respiratory system-Lungs, and Urinary system-Kidneys.

Physiology reveals how human body parts perform their activities i.e., body functions. These functions involve physical, mechanical, biochemical, bioelectrical and metabolic functions for healthy existence of the individual. Each system is responsible to maintain the Homeostasis conditions of the body through their characteristics secretions like the lymph-lymphatic system, neurotransmitters via nerve impulses-Nervous system, Hormones-Endocrine system, maintenance of Blood pressure through the pumping-Circulatory system, breathing and gaseous exchange-Respiratory System, energy supply and strength-digestive system, Bone strength and stature musculoskeletal system.

The study of human anatomy and physiology help for diagnosing and treating the diseased conditions and disorders after the attack or in initial stages through characteristics symptoms. In Pharmaceutical studies, Human Anatomy and Physiology has a major role to explore the drug effect by comparing the regular nature and functions of body parts with respect to pre and post-administration conditions.

Autism diagnosis

From birth to no less than three years of age, each kid ought to be screened for formative developments amid routine well visits. At the point when such a screening—or a parent—brings up worries about a youngster’s improvement, the specialist ought to allude the tyke to a master in formative assessment and early mediation. These assessments ought to incorporate hearing and lead introduction tests and also an extreme introvertedness particular screening instrument, for example, the M-CHAT. Among these screening devices are a few equipped to more established youngsters and additionally particular a mental imbalance range issue. An ordinary analytic assessment includes a multi-disciplinary group of specialists including a pediatrician, clinician, discourse and dialect pathologist and word related advisor. Hereditary testing may similarly be suggested, and also screening for related restorative issues, for example, rest troubles. This kind of far-reaching enables guardians to comprehend however much as could be expected about their youngster’s qualities and requirements.

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At times an extreme introvertedness range issue is analyzed sometime down the road, regularly in connection to learning, social or enthusiastic challenges. Similarly, as with youthful youngsters, a conclusion of teenagers and grown-ups includes individual perception and meeting by a prepared pro. Regularly, a conclusion conveys help to the individuals who have since quite a while ago battled with troubles in relating socially while not understanding the wellspring of their challenges.

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A mental imbalance Speaks is satisfied to give the full-content of the demonstrative criteria for extreme introvertedness range issue (ASD) and the related finding of social correspondence issue (SCD), as they show up in the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), embraced in 2013. Clinicians and therapists utilize these criteria while assessing people for these formative issues.

How do you look after your Mental Health?

Exercise and Nature :

Spend time outdoors in nature. It’s soothing in a way which we can’t even describe. Nurture nature and watch your garden grow Regarding Mental Health. A good book and the view of nature is really a great day for us and all we need for a positive outcome. Going for a run. Running for half hour 3/4 times week gives us headspace and our own time. Out in nature, there is so much to bring us back from that stressed state, the sound of the ocean the sound of the wind blowing through trees, crunchy leaves in autumn, birds singing… Actually, we and kids go and skim stones that are quite relaxing too. We also think water and nature take away any worries we have as we can get lost in how beautiful it is. Exercise, we go to local classes where we get to hang out with friends who don’t judge and do exercise that helps us feel positive. Exercise and having time out to enjoy a hobby!

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Meditation, Sleep, Travelling :

As practitioners and wellness coach we use positive psychology, meditation, self-regulation, and check-in. We like to meditate – so lovely to help you feel calmer and compose. Meditate and forgive yourself because tomorrow is another day. Manage stress by getting enough sleep; don’t live too far beyond your means get enough sleep! Travel somewhere new, even if we do it alone. We try to turn any negatives into a positive. So many things! If we want to try something we will find a way, we spend most of my time doing what we love and keep the challenge high. Always remember it’s good to be us. Minimise contact with negative people. We limit the negativity and focus on positive. Being aware of the people around you is very important to stop negative or damaging influence slipping in. Be grateful for what you have. Don’t be too hard on yourself.

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‘Talk to someone. Go to doctors regularly. We talk about everything to one doctor. We always do our best to reach out to someone in our support network that we trust and let them know if we are struggling. I have learned over the years we can’t always fight strength also comes from realizing the value others have in our lives and using those shoulders to love and lean on. ‘It’s good to talk’.

 Music, Television :

Listening to music like help, as does singing along badly. When I’m feeling low, I put on music that lifts my mood. Works every time.

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 Writing, Art, Animals :

Gorillas can experience many of the same mental health issues that humans do. Dogs are excellent at reading Human Emotions. Animals really do help with so much of the emotional distress we go through on a daily. Animals are fabulous they give so much back, and have such characters! Hang out with animals. Spend time with animals: they don’t ask questions. Journaling is really beneficial to our wellbeing, especially regarding our mental health and managing our anxiety and depression. We have been writing two pages every morning of a stream of conscious thoughts. Whatever comes into your head, just write it down. We should have been doing this for the many years, and it has helped us massively! Our mental health is at its worst when, for whatever reason, our creativity is stifled. And at its best when we are doing the thing that makes us who we are.

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Opportunities to Treat Childhood Dementia

Although dementia is regularly found in grown-ups, youth or immature dementia occurs. The restorative medications may be compelling against youth dementia. Youth dementia is an acquired issue that influences the digestion of the cerebrum. Introductory manifestations incorporate degeneration of sight taken after by epileptic seizures, visual impairment, deafness, dementia and early passing. The ailment is bothered by an incendiary reaction in the cerebrum. In creature models, the two medications fundamentally diminished obsessive changes in the mind and other clinical parameters, for example, the recurrence of muscle jerking. Additionally, they made the retina deteriorate substantially more gradually and less seriously

Childhood Dmentia

The measure of grown-up tyke conversational turns that youthful kids encounter is identified with the quality of white issue associations between two key dialect districts in the neuro, as spoken to by the shaded mind areas from two members. Albeit the two youngsters are a similar age and sexual orientation, and from the same financial foundation, they vary in the quantity of conversational turns experienced, which identifies with the quality of white issue availability in these pathways

Dementia Diagnosis

Finding a clinically achievable way: Fingolimod and Teriflunomide these medications were created to treat various sclerosis, the most incessant incendiary issue of the focal sensory system. Caring use would henceforth be conceivable yet controlled clinical investigations on patients would be the best quality level. Such examinations, in any case, are trying as far as financing and considering the uncommon idea of the Disease.

Betel Quid Addiction and Implications for Substance Use Disorder

Around Worldwide Millions of people use betel quid, a mixture of Areca catechu nut, betel leaves, and slaked lime. Tobacco is regularly added to this combination. Areca catechu nut is the most normally used fourth addictive substance in the world after caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. Arecoline, a nonselective muscarinic agonist, is the primary Hallucinogenic agent in areca catechu nut.

Betel quid use is common to many parts of Asia, and rates of addiction to the substance are increasing in those regions. Regular use of betel quid is related with many health comorbidities, including oral cancer. Recen study in JAMA Psychotherapy, researchers wanted to “investigate the validity and pattern of [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5)]-defined betel quid use disorder (BUD) and its association with oral potentially malignant disorder among Asian populations.”

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The investigators interviewed 8922 indiscriminately hand-picked community-dwelling adults (4564 ladies and 4358 men; mean age, 44.2±0.2 years) from half dozen Piper betel quid-endemic countries enclosed within the Asian Betel-quid pool Study.

Using DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder (SUD) to assess study participants for BUD, the investigators found that these criteria “showed sufficient unidimensionality to act as a valid measure for BUD.” Betel quid users were classified as follows:

No BUD: 0 to 1 symptom

Mild BUD: 2 to 3 symptoms

Moderate BUD: 4 to 5 symptoms

Severe BUD: ≥6 symptoms

According to the results, the 12-month popularity of DSM-5-defined BUD was 18.0% (mild, 3.2%; moderate, 4.3%; and severe, 10.5%). Among current betel pepper quid users, 86.0% were found to possess DSM-5-defined BUD (mild, 15.5%; moderate, 20.6; and severe, 50.0%). Compared with non-users, pepper vine quid users were shown to possess a well larger risk (from nine.6-fold to thirty five-fold) for oral probably malignant disorder. In a related editorial article published in the same issue of JAMA Psychiatry, researchers proposed that these study results offer an opportunity to advance the conceptualization of SUD, and they offer suggestions for the further study of BUD.

BUD symptoms “were related to alternative findings expected to precede, co-occur, or be the implications of [SUD], that supported the validity of BUD,” they wrote. Maybe, compared with participants while not BUD, those with BUD were additional probably to possess a lower education level and family and friends World Health Organization used Piper betel quid. Additionally, BUD was related to smoking and alcohol use.

Perhaps most significant was the association of BUD severity with oral probably malignant disorders, that urged a significant clinical consequence of BUD over and on top of the danger bestowed by use patterns,” they expressed within the editorial. The presence of multiple precursor, concurrent, and resulting correlates enhances the validity (i.e., the credibility) of BUD within the same method that the amount of symptoms of a disorder in a very patient will increase our confidence in this designation.”

 

Intervention Shows Promise for Treating Depression in Preschool-Aged Children

PCIT-ED is one of the first psychotherapeutic treatments to target early childhood depression.

Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have shown that a therapy-based treatment for disruptive behavioral disorders can be adapted and used as an effective treatment option for early Children Depression. Children as young as 3-years-old can be diagnosed with clinical depression, and although preschool-aged children are sometimes prescribed antidepressants, a psychotherapeutic intervention is greatly needed. The researchers adapted Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), which has been shown to be an effective way to treat disruptive behavioral disorders in young children. In standard PCIT treatment, parents are taught techniques for successfully interacting with their children. They then practice these techniques in controlled situations while being coached by a clinician.

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To target the therapy for childhood depression, the researchers adapted this standard intervention by adding a new emotional development (ED) module to the treatment. This extra material used the basic techniques of PCIT to train parents to be more effective at helping their children regulate emotions and to be better emotion coaches for their children. The training was designed to help enhance the children’s emotional competence and emotion regulation abilities. This study builds on programmatic research that has identified factors associated with the development and course of depression among very young children and in turn, represent targets for intervening “Using a modular approach that builds upon the well-established PCIT platform may ultimately help facilitate dissemination of the ED intervention.”

Children ages 3-6 who met criteria for early childhood depression and their parents were randomly assigned to PCIT-ED treatment or a waitlist group. Children in the PCIT-ED group completed standard PCIT modules for a maximum of 12 treatment sessions, followed by an emotional development module lasting eight sessions. There are currently no empirically tested treatments that are widely used to treat early childhood depression; therefore, children parents in the waitlist group were offered PCIT-ED treatment after completion of the study.

The research assessed before and after treatment or the waiting period, children’s psychiatric symptoms, their emotional self-regulation abilities, their level of impairment and functioning, and their tendency to experience guilt. Parents were assessed for depression severity, coping styles, and strategies they used in response to their child’s negative emotions, and for stress within the Parent-Child Relationship. At the completion of treatment, children in the PCIT-ED group were less likely to meet criteria for depression, more likely to have achieved remission, and were more likely to score lower on depression severity than children in the waitlist group. Children in the PCIT-ED treatment group had improved functioning, fewer comorbid disorders, and were rated as having greater emotional regulation skills and greater “guilt reparation “saying sorry” after having done something wrong, appropriate empathy with others etc. compared with children in the waitlist group.

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 Parents in the PCIT-ED group also benefited. They were found to have decreased symptoms of depression, lower levels of parenting stress, and reported employing more parenting techniques that focused on emotion reflection and processing than parents in the waitlist group. Parents also overwhelmingly reported positive impressions of the therapeutic program.

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“The study provides very promising evidence that an early and brief psychotherapeutic intervention that focuses on the parent-child relationship and on enhancing emotion development may be a powerful and low-risk approach to the treatment of depression. “It will be very important to determine if gains made in this early treatment are sustained over time and whether early intervention can change the course of the disorder.” be very important to determine if gains made in this early treatment are sustained over time and whether early intervention can change the course of the disorder.”

Women and Mental Health

Women and men are different not only in their obvious physical attributes but also in their psychological makeup. Women and men differ in the way they communicate, deal in relationships, express their feelings, and react to stress. Thus, the gender differences are based on physical, physiological, and psychological attributes. Alpha bias is seen in psychodynamic theories and therapies where according to a Freudian viewpoint, male anatomy and masculinity is the most desired and cherished goal and female anatomy and femininity are seen as a deviation. In contrast, the cognitive theories, behavioral theories, and humanistic-existential theories have the beta bias. Alpha bias could be rooted more in the social conditioning and power structure in the societies.

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Gender roles have been culturally prescribed through the prehistoric cultures to the more civilized societies., there has been a change in the availability of employment to more respectable office jobs where more education is demanded. Thus, although, larger sections of women from all socioeconomic classes are employed outside the home; this neither relieves them from their domestic duties nor does this change their social position significantly. For centuries, the differences between men and women have been socially defined and distorted through a lens of sexism in which men assumed superiority over women and maintained it through domination. This has led to underestimating the role a woman plays in the dyad of human existence.

It is necessary to understand and accept that women and men differ in biological attributes, needs, and vulnerabilities.

WOMEN’S MENTAL HEALTH: THE FACTS 

Depressive disorders account for close to 41.9% of the disability from neuropsychiatric disorders among women compared to 29.3% among men.Leading Mental Health problems of the elderly are depression, organic brain syndromes, and dementias. A majority are women estimated 80% of the 50 million people affected by violent conflicts, civil wars, disasters, and displacement are women and children.L lifetime prevalence rate of violence against women ranges from 16% to 50%. At least one in five women suffers rape or attempted rape in their lifetime.

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Suicide

Studies of suicide and deliberate self-harm have revealed a universally common trend of more female attempters and more male completers of suicide. However, in contrast to the data from many other countries, except China, which records the highest female suicide rate, women outnumber men in completed suicides in India, although the gap between them is narrow as found that girls from nuclear families and women married at a very young age to be at a higher risk for attempted suicide and self-harm. The suicide rate by age for India reveals that the suicide rates peak for both men and women between the age 18 and 29 while in the age group 10–17, the rate for the female exceeded the male figure.

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 In his seminal studies, Emile Durkheim had vividly demonstrated over a century ago, that sociocultural factors are significant determinants of suicide behavior and perhaps these impact men and women differently. In an Indian study, the 1-year incidence of attempted suicide was 0.8%, and seven of these women (37%) had baseline CMDs. CMD, exposure to violence, and recent hunger were the strongest predictors of the incident attempted suicide cases. A large degree of attempts is as a response to failures in life, difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and dowry-related harassment. The precipitants for suicide, according to Indian government statistics, among women compared to men are as follows: Dowry disputes (2.9% versus 0.2%); love affairs (15.4% versus 10.9%); illegitimate pregnancies (10.3 versus 8.2); and quarrels with spouse or parents-in-law (10.3% versus 8.2%). The common causes for suicide in India are disturbed interpersonal relationships followed by psychiatric disorders and physical illnesses. Spousal violence has been found to be specifically associated as an independent risk factor for attempted suicide in women.

Focusing on a mind component could treat hostility

However, regardless of being normal, hostility has demonstrated extremely hard to treat. Some pharmacological regimens can be of some assistance, however medications over and over fall flat, while therapists still consider certain sorts of hostility recalcitrant. What’s more, a look at day by day news uncovers that brutality holds on regardless of the best strategies and sociocultural components to address it. On the level of science, investigations of the genomes of forceful people have attempted to recognize particles that may underlie animosity. The thought behind this is if we somehow managed to distinguish sub-atomic targets, we could conceivably grow more successful medications.

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The researchers examined an extraordinary type of mice that show manifestations of mental issue, for example, schizophrenia, a mental imbalance, and bipolar issue – all of which can include forceful conduct. The fundamental normal for these mice is that they do not have the quality that delivers a catalyst called ST8SIA2 (“knockout” mice). This compound produces polysialic corrosive, a sugar atom that structures a complex with a gathering of sticky proteins on the surface of neurons and encourages them relocate and associate, especially amid pre-birth and early postnatal advancement – in mice, as well as people also.

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In view of this, the analysts expected to see whether the nonattendance of ST8SIA2 – and accordingly, polysialic corrosive amid early advancement influences forceful and savage conduct in the mice. Except if incited, mice are ordinarily not forceful, so it is anything but difficult to watch and measure deviations in conduct. In addition to other things in this investigation, the analysts estimated the time it took the knockout mice to assault innocuous adversaries, for example, adolescent mice or females (on the off chance that they did), and whether the assaults were coordinated to helpless body parts. They found that the knockout mice hinted at anomalous forceful conduct contrasted with solid mice.

Potential Advance in turning around impacts of Alzheimers:

The Possibility that anticipating and regarding Alzheimer’s ailment could be as simple as wearing specific eye wear that conveys quick gleams of light. Since the main instance of Alzheimer’s illness was recognized more than 100 years prior, the quantity of individuals with the infection in the United States has developed to more than 5 million and is relied upon to increment. Analysts have gained significant ground in describing the atomic and protein brokenness that happens in Alzheimer’s ailment, yet none of the present FDA-endorsed medicines can turn around, stop, or even back off its movement

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Its trademark pathology are beta-amyloid proteins that bunch together and shape lethal plaques outside of cells, and unusual tau proteins that cluster together and frame poisonous tangles inside cells. The most longstanding hypothesis of Alzheimer’s infection places that beta-amyloid protein variations from the norm drive the tau protein anomalies. Thus, these drive different markers of cerebrum brokenness of Alzheimer’s ailment, for example, neuroinflammation and cell passing. Generally, the demise of cells and neurotransmitters (parts of cells that permit correspondence with each other) are likely in charge of dementia, an essential piece of the ailment. Indeed, even before beta-amyloid groups into plaques, in any case, certain parts of beta-amyloid are delivered at too high a level and bother mind work.

A few analysts have discovered proof that amyloid levels might be raised in individuals for a long time, maybe even decades, previously manifestations end up clear. The moderate movement of the sickness may imply that cerebrum brokenness has just advanced too far when indications are distinguished for medications to be viable. This is one reason a noteworthy focal point of research is to discover organic markers — ideally noninvasive — that could enable clinicians to identify the most punctual phases of Alzheimer’s sickness before across the board and irreversible harm happens.

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The adequacy of the light flicker treatment in the mice proposes that, if these discoveries can be effectively meant people. Maybe somebody with an expanded hazard for Alzheimer’s ailment could consider doing this treatment preventively.