Category Archives: Obesity

Eating Disorder

EatingIf you are obsessed over food, body weight and shape, there might be a chance of having Eating Disorder. People often think that eating disorders are a lifestyle choice. But they are actually serious and often fatal mental illness and are an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity in an individual. According to various studies on eating disorders, the results found that the frequency of occurrence is much less in men as compared to adolescent girls and young adult women and a large proportion of eating disorder patients were exercising excessively during an acute phase of the disorder.

Types of Eating Disorders

They are divided into three diagnostic categories: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge-eating disorder.

  • Anorexia Nervosa, characterized by inadequate intake of food. In this condition, people may have unrealistic perception of overweight, even when they are dangerously underweight and thus, they severely restrict the amount of food they eat, and eat very small quantities of only certain foods. It can lead to damaging health effects, such as loss of bones and skin integrity, increases the risk of heart attacks and related heart problems, brain damage, multi-organ failure, and infertility. The mortality rate is highest in this disease as compared to other mental disorders, either due to complications associated with starvation or the patient commits suicide.
  • Bulimia Nervosa, characterized by an excessive intake of food followed by compensatory behaviors for the overeating such as forced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, excessive exercise, or a combination of these behaviors. Although people usually maintain their relatively normal and healthy weight, but the irregular food behaviors can have injuring effects, such as chronically inflamed and sore throat, severe gastrointestinal problems, severe dehydration, and various heart difficulties resulting from an electrolyte imbalance.
  • Atypical eating disorders: There are many other types of eating disorders including Binge-eating Disorder (lack of control on eating), other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED), Diabulimia, etc.

Cause of Eating Disorder

Although the cause of eating disorders is not clear but it seems like combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors plays an important role in the development of these illnesses.

  • A high proportion of individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (way the person sees themselves) also had some type of eating disorder.
  • Biological conditions such as hormone irregularities and nutrition deficiencies can also lead to eating disorders.
  • The environmental factors include Dysfunctional family dynamic, aesthetically oriented sports, Professions and careers, childhood traumas and other stressful transitions.

Treatment for an Eating Disorder

People often ignore such conditions which then results in severe adverse effects. Because of severity and complexities of these conditions, it has become necessary to establish a comprehensive and professional treatment. Addressed with medical doctors, nutritionists, and therapists for complete care, the treatment includes:

  • Individual, group, and/or family psychotherapy
  • Medical care and monitoring
  • Nutritional counselling
  • Medications

Genetic regulation of metabolomic biomarkers: Paths to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes

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The research has revealed eleven new genetic regions associated with the blood levels of the metabolites, including new loci affecting well-established risk markers for cardiovascular disease and potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes.

In a study to the genetic variance of human metabolism, specialists have identified thirty one regions of the genome that were related with levels of circulating metabolites, i.e., small molecules that take part in different chemical reactions of human body. Many of the studied metabolites are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease or related disorders, accordingly the loci uncovered may provide valuable insight into the biological processes leading to common diseases.

Lab tests used in the clinic typically monitor one or few circulating metabolites. The researchers used a high throughput method called nuclear magnetic resonance that can measure more than hundred different metabolites in one assay. This provides a considerably more in-depth picture of circulating metabolic compounds.

The group assayed 117 detailed metabolic markers, including amino acids, lipids and lipoprotein subclasses, and conducted the largest genome-wide association analysis of this type, in terms of study sample size of 8330 individuals and 7.7 million genomic markers studied. They revealed, in total, 31 genetic regions related with the blood levels of the metabolites.

Among the discoveries were two new loci influencing serum cholesterol subclass measures, well-established risk markers for cardiovascular disease, and five new loci affecting levels of amino acids recently discovered to be potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes. The found variants have significant effects on the metabolite levels, the effect sizes being in general considerably larger than the known common variants for complex disease have.

Additionally, using twin pair samples, the scientists indicated that the metabolite levels show a high degree of heritability. This result suggests that the studied metabolites are describing better the underlying biology than the routinely used lab tests. In this way, the examination provides further support for the use of detailed data on multitude of metabolites in genetic studies to provide novel biological insights and to help in elucidating the processes leading to common diseases.

Dietary Fat Linked To Pancreatic Cancer

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A high-fat diet may advance the development of pancreatic cancer independent of obesity because of the interaction between dietary fat and cholecystokinin (CCK), a digestive hormone. In addition, blocking CCK may help anticipate the spread of pancreatic tumors to other regions of the body (metastases). CCK is released by the small digestive tract and is related to obesity. Dietary fat triggers the secretion of CCK; those who follow a diet high in immersed fats often have high levels of CCK. Past research has appeared that obesity and high-fat diets both together and independently increase the chance of pancreatic cancer. CCK too controls recovery that takes place after partial surgical removal of the pancreas. Pancreatic growth and regeneration occur through the interaction of CCK with CCK receptors, proteins that tie to CCK to produce a physiological reaction.

Identification of pancreatic cancer risk factors is of great significance since few people survive long after the determination. Pancreatic cancer is the 4th driving cause of cancer passing within the world. Impact of high unsaturated fat utilization epidemiologic literature on dietary fat intake and pancreatic cancer risk is conflicting, with a few studies finding an expanded chance of pancreatic cancer with higher total fat or saturated fat utilization and others appearing an expanded or reduced hazard of pancreatic cancer with higher particular saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid intakes. Other studies show no association with pancreatic cancer risk some studies have moreover appeared a positive affiliation for animal fat intake generally and particularly for fat from red meat and dairy. Dietary fat intake is especially challenging to study in relation to pancreatic cancer given the expanded undetectable stage of tumorigenesis and the dietary changes that can occur during this pre-diagnostic, but progressively symptomatic period. Studies that account for changes in dietary practices in the years prior to diagnosis are required to address the problem of reverse causation. The affiliation between fat intake and pancreatic cancer risk in a large, prospective cohort of men and women.

Men and women who consumed high amounts of total fats have 53% and 23% higher relative rates of pancreatic cancer, respectively, compared with men and women who had the least fat consumption. Excess body fat is one of the strongest components increasing risk for pancreatic cancer. Low-fat diet decreased the chance of pancreatic cancer among a targeted bunch of postmenopausal, obese women. Low-fat diet is especially viable in reducing pancreatic cancer hazard in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

Does Vegetarians Suffer from Obesity?

obesity-young-adult2Vegetarian diets may play a significant role in promoting health and in the prevention of obesity. Vegetarianism encompasses a range of eating patterns that are diets which leave out all animal products as well as meat to diets that include milk, eggs, fishes and milk products. A previous study has indicated that BMI increases when a wider range of animal products like meat or eggs are eaten. Specifically, the European Prospective Investigation found that BMI was highest in meat eaters, lowest in vegans, and was found to at intermediate level in fish eaters. The positive effects of vegetarian against overweight is may be due to restraining major food groups, shifting of calories toward food groups that are more fuller effect.

Research shows that cutting down on meat and switching to a diet rich in fruit and vegetables lowers the risk of obesity. People who prefer a diet heavy in meat, eggs, dairy and animal fats  are obese than the people who eat around double the amount of fruit and vegetables, grains, pulses, olive oil and who enjoy potatoes.

Professor Maira Bes-Rastrollo, from the University of Navarra in Spain, recently presented the study at the European Congress on Obesity in Porto. She claimed that plant-based foods contains more fibre and helped people feel fuller for longer thus preventing obesity.

Doubtlessly, plant based diets, especially vegans, have lower BMIs in general. Studies have proven that, on average, meat eaters are nine times the obesity rate of vegans. Vegans are 10-20 pounds less on average.

In one of the case study, it was found that the ubiquity of overweight was 40% among omnivores, 29% among both semivegetarians and vegans, and 25% among lactovegetarians.

Weight loss success is achieved only when the food choices reflect an overall decrease in calories taken and a corresponding increase in calories spent. These choices are referred to food and drink as well as the calorie expenditure.  But the good news is that turning vegetarian in a healthful way can help an individual to achieve this goal and keep obesity off long-term.

Fat Burning Foods

16If you feel like making a smart move to control obesity or lose weight but can’t see the scale prove you right, it may be because your diet contains some devious foods that lead to bloating, water retention as well as higher calorie intake.

Boosting the metabolic rate helps in losing body fat. However, most “fat-burning” supplements on the market are either ineffective, or unsafe or both. Fortunately, several natural foods and beverages have been shown to increase metabolism and promote fat loss.

“People will go crazy and cut out whole food groups” says Nutritionist Jess Cording, R.D, “or they are really intense with exercise without refueling appropriately.  But it’s really important build in time and gives your body adequate calories and nutrients”.

The fat burning foods starts slimming your waistline. They build muscle, promote fat burning or simply use energy in order to digest them.

Certain foods have a very high thermogenic effect, so you invest calories as you chew. Other foods contain nutrients and compounds that speeds up the metabolic rate.

Some of the fat burning foods include almonds and other nuts with skins intact. They help in building muscle and reduce cravings. Eggs are known to build muscle and burn fat. Lean Meats strengthen immune system. Berries improve satiety and prevent cravings. Oranges and red vegetables provide health-boosting beta-carotene, fibre as well as phytochemicals. Peanut Butter boosts testosterone, builds muscle as well as burns fat. Fatty Fish such as tuna, salmon and mackerel trigger the feeling of fullness and aids in fat burning. Grapefruit lowers insulin, regulates blood sugar and metabolism. Green Tea fires up fat burners. Chilli Peppers spike your metabolism. Spinach and Green Vegetables improve recovery for better muscle building and fight free radicals. Whole-grains and rice prevent the body from storing fat. Beans and legumes help burn fat, build muscle regulate digestion. Whey builds muscle and burns fat.

Despite what some supplement processors may suggest, there isn’t anything like a safe “magic pill” that can help you burn hundreds of extra calories per day.

However, a number of foods and beverages may meanly increase your metabolic rate, in addition to providing other health benefits.

Considering several of them in your daily diet will definitely lead to fat loss and better overall health.

Are pineapples healthy for Diabetic or Obese person?

obesity diet 2018A healthy diet should include portion of various fruits. Fruits such as pineapples are a healthy choice for people with diabetes as well as obesity. Pineapple is one such fruit that is a powerhouse of nutrition as well as tastes great.

It is packed with thiamine also known as Vitamin B1, Vitamin C, and rich in iron. It also contains an enzyme called bromelain which helps in digestion and its juice is thought to be a diuretic. It has anti-inflammatory properties and is also an anti-oxidant. Since it is rich manganese, it also boosts bone health. Pineapple also can contain carbohydrates that affect your blood sugar as well as body’s metabolism.

As a source of carbohydrate, mostly sugar, it’s not likely that pineapple could lower blood sugar. However, as a fruit that digests more quickly than others, some may experience a low blood sugar effect, especially if they have diabetes.

However, Harvard researchers reported that consuming three servings of whole fruit per week, particularly blueberries, raisins,  grapes and apples as well as pears, reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by almost 26 per cent. Additionally, fruits’ glycaemic index (GI), a rating which indicates how quickly food can raise blood sugar, did not play a significant role in determining individual fruits’ effects on diabetes risk. “High” as well as “Moderate” glycaemic index of fruits that include pineapple and many dried fruits as well as dried fruits were just as notable as low glycaemic index choices.

The belief that diabetics should avoid certain fruits is unproven.

The present study was conducted to assess anti-obesity effects of raw pineapple juice in high fat diet (HFD)-induced fatness.

Pineapple has progressed toward becoming a recommended fruit in obesity as well as dyslipidaemia treatment as it contains a high amount of bromelain, which has a role in lipolysis and diminishing the severity of cardiovascular syndromes.

Pineapple juice, therefore, may possibly be used in anti-obesity category where it decreases lipogenesis (the process through which fat is formed) and increased lipolysis (the process by which fats are broken down).

Let’s get to know about some of the interesting facts of bariatric surgery

Myths and reality!!!

Due to the changing lifestyle and tremendous increase in the obesity related problem bariatric surgery has become one of the emerging fields.

Myth 1: Bariatric surgery is only for the morbidly obese

Reality: Obesity is only the primary category that makes the situations for the victims to undergo surgery but, the overweight patients are also subjected to bariatric surgery when they are supposed to have the problems like diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, arthritis and others.6

Myth 2: Liposuction and Bariatric surgery are same

Reality: Liposuction is cosmetic surgical procedure that is involved in shaping the body whereas the bariatric surgery is the metabolic surgery that works on the general mechanism of the body to gain control over the weight.

Myth 3: Vitamin & Mineral deficiencies are caused by the bariatric surgery.

Reality: Bariatric nutritionists generally gives the diet chart through which the vitamin and mineral deficiencies supposed to occur can be balanced.

Myth 4: After Bariatric surgery you cannot eat any foods that tastes to be good.

Reality: Patients who underwent gastric bypass should avoid very sweet foods because it can cause some side effects but most of the victims eat their favorite foods and enjoy after they recover from the surgery.7

Myth 5: Post-surgery diet before you have the operation

Reality: Post surgery diet before the operation is essential since we can have some natural weight reduction and reduces the risk of complication at the later stages of operation.

Genetics of Obesity : Neurotransmitters

2Obesity is the major Public threat.The pattern of Obesity is completely driven by the environmental changes and including the heritability is also strong. The present level of obesity is responsible for over 300,000 deaths per year. Obesity is Genetically interwined with Brain and its mental performance.  Scientists are trying to figure it out on why being are becoming Obese and helping people to stay thinner and healthier. A new Research study showed the link of a change in a DNA in being Obese. This movement in the DRD2 gene, named A1, may cause people to experience less pleasure from food.

The major fact in gaining weight is because of the brain. Researchers foung a higher correlation between higher Body Mass Index and reduced cognitive flexibility visuospatial ability and verbal memory. The Dopamine receptors are the reason for getting Obesity. When someone eats something they like, the brain releases dopamine. This Neurotransmitter meets up with dopamine receptors and the brain then registers that the edibles was a good thing. People with the A1 version of the DRD2 gene have less dopamine receptors. So the research makes a conclusion that people with like these need to eat more to get a difference from their food.the brain

To date, with the help of many doctors around the world, reseacrhers have recruited 6500 patients. They used a number of approaches to find genes involved in weight and have identified 12 different gene disorders that can cause severe obesity in childhood. These genes work in the brain to control the key pathways that are generated by the hormone “Leptin” and are involved in appetite and metabolism (how your body handles the calories you eat). Using a combination of psychometric and functional imaging studies applied to individuals with known genetic lesions in the appetitive pathways, scientists are beginning to gain novel and exciting insights into the interactions between balancing the homeostatic and hedonic feeding.

Is Your Gut Bacteria responsible for your Obesity?

The human body is host to a number of microbes, including fungal, bacterial and protozoan microorganisms, which together constitute our microbiota. The gut microbiome consists of trillions of bacteria which play an essential role in human metabolism. The evidence is transpiring that the intestinal microbiome is fundamentally linked with a person’s health, including obesity risk factors. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders are identified by precise modifications in the function as well as the composition of the human gut microbiome.

Bacteria responsible for weight gain are thought to induce the expression of genes which are related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism thereby leading to greater energy harvest from the diet.Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have investigated a new link between gut bacteria and obesity. They found that certain amino acids in our blood are responsible to both obesity and the composition of the gut microbiome.

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However, an increasing number of research studies indicate that our gut microbiota plays an important role in our health. It directly affects our metabolism and can be linked to obesity, type 2 Diabetes and cardiovascular disease and other diseases.

They found 19 different metabolites that can be associated to the person’s BMI. Among these metabolites; glutamate and BCAA (branched-chain and aromatic amino acids) have the strongest connection to obesity. They also found that the obesity-related metabolites are related to four different intestinal bacteria i.e., Blautia, Dorea and Ruminococcus in the Lachnospiraceae family, and SHA98.

“The differences in BMI were mainly explained by the differences in the levels of glutamate and BCAA. This proves that the metabolites and gut bacteria interact with each other, rather than being independent of each other,” said Marju Orho-Melander, professor of genetic epidemiology at Lund University.

Obesity and Oral Health

Obesity has increased at a daunting rate in recent years. Presently it is a worldwide public health problem. The World Health Organisation (WHO) classifies obesity as a chronic disease. Affected people are at increased hazard of heart disease, hypertension and other illnesses. Within dentistry obesity can be a potential complicating factor. For instant, the position of anatomical landmarks may be less evident if surrounded by fatty tissue.

Obesity prevention and controlling generally starts with looking at and altering our diet. Researchers suggest that there may be an association between a periodontal disease and high glycemic diet. Fermentable carbohydrates, such as refined wheat flour, rice, potatoes, and many, get converted into simple sugars in the mouth. These foods are believed by numerous specialities to contribute to weight gain, leading up to obesity.

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The association these same sugars have on our dental health is rather surprising because it goes against conventional dietary recommendations. When ingested, simple sugars are changed into plaque in case not removed properly. As plaque starts to accumulate on our teeth and gums, the chance for varying forms of gum disease such as periodontitis and gingivitis, as well as tooth decay, may become inescapable.

There is a proof to suggest that simple carbohydrates like sugar and flour contribute effectively to inflammation in the liver that indirectly advances the production of belly fat. When a person has inflammation of the gums that is seen in gum disease, it may be a sign that the body is encountering noteworthy systemic inflammation that can contribute to the risk of obesity and weight gain. Cutting down simple carbohydrates may have a positive effect on both obesity and gum disease.

It is obvious that the reaffirmation that regular dental examinations, meticulous dental hygiene by flossing and brushing twice daily, and conscious dietary modifications may prevent health complications related to gum disease and essentially oral bacteria.

Quitting smoking and chewing tobacco is one of the most excellent ways to decrease chance of developing periodontal disease. Eating a low-fat, reduced sodium balanced diet of vegetables, whole grains and fruits are recommended. Constraining the time sugar is in contact with the teeth is advised. Regular dental visits are suggested for teeth inspection and cleaning.