Category Archives: Medical

Seven common-sense building blocks for your child’s brain

 1aAll youngsters contrast in their natural vulnerability to life encounters in a ‘for better and for more terrible’ way. A few children are especially delicate to both exceptionally unpleasant and exceedingly sustaining situations. Like orchids, such youngsters sprout if affectionately developed, however shrink and wilt whenever ignored.

Conversely, versatile flexible kids who don’t get effortlessly focused resemble little dandelions, they’ll develop and flourish anyplace.

Studies are currently indicating ‘orchid’ and ‘dandelion’ qualities connected to specific compounds or mind concoction receptors, if and just whenever joined with early youth lethal pressure, can trigger conduct issues and state of mind issue further down the road.

The Dunedin examine has demonstrated that early beneficial encounters shape creating mind engineering and unequivocally influence whether kids grow up to be sound, profitable individuals from society. Poisonous pressure — characterized as pressure that is extraordinary or dependable or happens outside a domain of steady, connected parental figure connections — crashes sound mental health, with harming consequences for learning, conduct, and physical and psychological wellness over the life expectancy.

While composing The Women’s Brain Book I spent a lot of Chapter 2 investigating what can turn out badly amid youth – from the impacts of injury to family worry to learning negative sex generalizations. I stressed that if perusers had youthful youngsters they were presumably prepared to drop the book and keep running off to mass purchase cotton fleece and air pocket wrap.

Given what we think about typical and irregular mental health, what encounters do newborn children and kids (the dandelions and the orchids) need to flourish, not simply survive? What can grown-ups who bring up kids do to cultivate sound, upbeat brains?

Looked with swimming through many years of youth advancement writing, I rather grabbed the telephone and called my companion and partner Dr Kristy Goodwin. Goodwin is a kids’ learning and improvement specialist and she has condensed seven basic encounters or, as she calls them ‘fabricating squares’ for ideal mental health.

What do developing brains need to flourish?

  1. Attachments and relationships.

Warm, unsurprising and cherishing connections enable youngsters to feel secure, protected and unstressed.

  2.Language .

Newborn children and youthful kids require abundant chances to hear and utilize dialect: ‘serve-and-return’ collaborations are vital.

  1. Sleep

Rest is imperative for youngsters’ enthusiastic, physical and mental advancement.

  1. Play.

Through play, infants and youngsters create subjective abilities, innovativeness and passionate direction. They require adequate chances to try and investigate, incorporating time outside in nature. Dr Goodwin features the cutting edge need to neutralize ‘screen time’ with ‘green time’.

  1. Physical Movement.

Kids need to ace basic then complex engine aptitudes with the end goal to grow more advanced, higher-arrange thinking abilities later on.

  1. Nutrition.

Quality nourishment is crucial for ideal advancement. Kids’ weight control plans should be wealthy in sustenances that contain fundamental unsaturated fats ideal for mental health.

  1. Executive Function Skills.

Kids need to ace basic higher-arrange thinking aptitudes, for example, drive control and working memory.

“Given that we know encounter represents around 70% of a youngster’s advancement. It’s important that we give them the correct sorts of encounters.” Dr Kristy Goodwin.

Poulton, Goodwin and I concur that adolescence is a hallowed time. It’s a remarkable period in the life expectancy that should be cherished, supported and ensured.

Why single embryo transfer during IVF sometimes results in twins or triple

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It has been known for some time that it is way better to transfer a single embryo to a woman’s womb during Assisted Reproduction Treatment (ART) instead of a few embryos in order to dodge multiple pregnancies and the dangers related with it such as fetal passings, premature delivery, miscarriage, and low birthweight. However, indeed when Single Fetus Transfer (SET) is performed, some women still ended up being pregnant with twins or indeed triplets.

World’s driving reproductive medicine journals, analysts have explored one of the reasons as a result of a process called zygotic splitting. Zygotic splitting after SET highlights factors that may increment the chance. These incorporate utilizing frozen defrosted embryos for SET, developing the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the laboratory for five or six days before SET, and assisted hatching, in which a small hole is made within the layer of proteins encompassing the embryo (the zona pellucida) to assist the embryo hatch out and connect itself to the wall of the woman’s womb.

Zygotic splitting happens between days two and six when the zygote divides, ordinarily into two, and each zygote at that point goes on to develop into an embryo, leading to identical twins (or triplets in case it separates into three). These are known as “monozygotic” twins (or triplets). At present, the number of embryos that can be exchanged is no more than 2 for women beneath 40 (or for those getting donated eggs as givers are beneath 35) or for women over 40 no more than 3.

There are numerous dangers inherent to both the mother and the babies born in a multiple birth pregnancy:-

  • Pregnancy complications
  • Higher rates of miscarriage
  • Higher chance of intercession in conveyance
  • Premature birth

It is vital to point out that although the use of single embryo transfer has increased around the world, the predominance of zygotic splitting pregnancies has not. This may be because Art methods, and also the cultures in which blastocysts are matured in the lab, have improved in recent years, decreasing the stress on embryos and leading to a diminish in the risk of zygotic splitting.

New allergy vaccine for hay fever shows promising results

w1Allergy has turned into a typical ailment, and several millions around the globe experience the ill effects of hypersensitive rhinitis, or feed fever, with distresses like colds, weakness and red, bothersome eyes. The analysts have built up an immunization that keeps the advancement of hypersensitivity in mice. It depends on particular sugar atoms that may build the impact of medications and decrease treatment times. New allergy antibody for feed fever indicates promising outcomes.

The present type of immunization can be improved. At first, the objective was to make a fake creation of the proteins on which allergy antibodies are based and to upgrade the proteins making them more compelling and quick working by utilizing sugar atoms. The long haul objective is to diminish the treatment time significantly, while in the meantime bringing down the treatment dosage.w2

Today we have immunizations for a few types of hypersensitivity, including roughage fever. Treatment in Denmark typically takes three to five years and includes standard infusions. Tragically, the immunizations don’t take a shot at everybody. Some are restored, others get less manifestations, while some experience no impact by any means. Another treatment alternative against grass dust hypersensitivity, for instance, is an oral lyophilisate to be taken day by day for a long time.w3

Birch is the test allergen of the new vaccine, which was administered as injections, on mice and in so-called in vitro tests on human cells .Allergen is the substance that can cause allergy when a person comes into contact with or ingests it. Several of the allergens — causing for example hay fever — are so-called glycoproteins. The sugar molecules were attached to the allergen to try to improve the effect of vaccination.w4

In the study that sugar molecules can be used to ensure that an allergen reaches the right cells in the immune system and increases the intake of the vaccine, improving the effect hereof. At the same time, the sugar molecules increase the activity of a different group of cells in the immune system, T cells, which help perform the functional part of the process. The next step is to test more types of sugar molecules to increase our portfolio and hopefully identify more sugar structures which can be used to further develop the vaccine platform. The researchers are seeking to further develop the vaccine to make it effective enough to be used on human allergy patients. The method of optimising a vaccine using sugar molecules — can potentially also be used to optimise treatments for other diseases. Instead of coupling sugar molecules with allergens, the researchers may simply couple it with different proteins.

Researchers are uncovering which sugar molecules are useful in connection with vaccines — and not just vaccines for allergy, but vaccines in general. This theory is based on the role of sugar molecules in the immune system’s reactions to various diseases. This method can potentially also be used within fields such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Pediatric and fetal surgery- Let’s get to know more!!!

1.Pediatric surgery is one of the most important branches of surgery and require intense monitoring due to the complexity and the small size of the babies and the difficulties in explaining situations.

Facts about Babies and Surgery!!!

  • Most babies or infants needs surgery for the specific purposes.
  • Some problems must be surgically corrected such as gastroschisis which requires surgery in the first hour following birth and omphalocele which can be corrected in the next few days.
  • Premature babies are at the higher risk for needing surgery.
  • A pediatric trained surgeon has special expertise in the anatomy and physiology of babies.
  • Some conditions which requires surgery may be trained during prenatal testing itself.
  • Babies or infants need special needs special needs when it comes to the field of surgery because of their small size and uniqueness.2.

Some of the important fetal surgeries.

  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease
  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital High Airway Obstruction
  • Fetal Surgery for Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation
  • Fetal Surgery for Neck Masses
  • Fetal Surgery for Sacrococcygeal Teratoma
  • Fetal Surgery for Urinary Tract Obstruction
  • Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy

Advances and limitations of minimally invasive techniques in pediatric surgery

  • Application of minimally invasive surgery in adult is slowly developing rather than compared to adults in surgery.
  • The application of endoscopic pediatric surgery in the Head and Neck is still untouched possibly due to the unavailability of exact size of scopes and surgical equipment’s.
  • Laparoscopy and Thoracoscopy are the usual MIS procedures performed in various surgical disciplines

New Antibody Conjugates in Cancer Therapy

drug_conjugateTargeting of drugs, radiation and protein toxins to cancer selectively with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has been considerable as a topic of interest and an area of continued development. Radioimmunotherapy of lymphoma using directly labeled MAbs is of current interest after approval of two radiolabeled anti-CD20 MAbs, as illustrated with the near 100% overall response rate obtained in a recent clinical trial using an investigational radiolabeled 90Y-epratuzumab ,anti-CD22 MAb. The advantage of pre targeted RAIT over directly labeled MAbs is continuing to be validated in preclinical models of solid tumors and lymphoma. Importantly, the advantages of combining RAIT with radiation sensitizers, with immunotherapy, or a drug conjugate targeting a different antigen are being studied clinically and pre clinically. The area of drug-conjugated antibodies is progressing with encouraging data for the trastuzumab-DM1 conjugate in a phase I clinical trial in HER2-positive breast cancer. The technology of Dock-and-Lock platform has contributed to the design and the evaluation of antibody-toxin conjugates and complex antibody-cytokine.

RADIOIMMUNOCONJUGATES

Radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) involves in the application of radiolabeled MAbs for targeted radiotherapy (RT). Both directly radiolabeled MAbs and in vivo radiolabelings of tumor-targeted MAbs by complexation with radiolabeled haptens have been developed.

Radionuclides Used for RAIT

Tumoricidal effects produced by continuous low-dose irradiation from a tumor-targeted radiolabeled MAb. For therapy, α- and β-particle emitters are of practical relevance. There have been numerous investigations with a number of these radionuclides, but for use with whole antibodies, the most promising radionuclides are the β-emitters 131I, 90Y, and 177Lu. 90Y is a max-energy β-emitter (Emax: 2,280 keV; max range: 12 mm) with a 64-h half-life, while 131I has a higher half-life of 8.1 days with low-intermediate energy (610 keV, range: 2.0 mm). 131I is quickly removed from tumor cells after intracellular antibody catabolism so it is not suitable for use with internalizing MAbs. The forms of intracellularly trapped 131I have been designed by us and others for use with internalizing MAbs. A recent study of IMP-R4 template utilized for incorporating residualizing radioiodine for immuno-PET quantitation of de2-7 EGFR expression in glioma in a xenograft model using 124I-IMP-R4–labeled anti-EGFR antibody, ch806. Residualizing use of radioiodine method for clinical RAIT may be supplanted by the availability of the metallic radionuclide 177Lu, which has radiophysical properties similar to those of 131I and radiolabeling chemistry similar to that of 90Y.

Zoonotic diseases- Rabies alert….!!!

Rabies-Vaccination-for-Pets-Rabid-Animals-1024x715Rabies is a Zoonotic infection that can be transmitted between humans and animals which has become a major public health problem. Among various zoonotic diseases, rabies and glanders cause millions of deaths. Overall prevalence of rabies cases which were around 48% are caused by dogs. Fatal neurological infection is caused by rabies in humans and other mammals, transmitted through the saliva of rabid animals via a bite or scratches.

Rodents such as rats, squirrels, and rabbits almost carry rabies and different wild animals like bats, raccoons, coyotes, foxes, and skunks are more likely to carry the disease. More than 200 diseases transmitted from animals to humans are through animal bites, arthropod vectors especially ticks and mosquitoes, air contact and direct contact transmission with the infected animal.

Rabies is a preventable viral infection of warm-blooded creatures frequently transmitted through the bite of an infected organism. Animals that have furious rabies may be very agitated or extremely aggressive towards different creatures, protests or even their own appendages. These animals ordinarily dribble exorbitantly, which can exhibit frothing at the mouth affected with rabies.

To stop the transmission of rabies, vaccinations are the best way and vaccinate animals like cattle, dogs and cats are against to rabies virus, and it may reduce the spread of Rabies virus.

Mycosis

Mycosis is a fungal infection which can be seen in animals and humans. Mycoses are common and can contribute to the development of fungal diseases in any variety of environmental and physiological conditions.

People with weakened immune systems are affected with HIV/AIDS undergoing steroid treatments and chemotherapy is at higher risk of fungal infections. Also, people with diabetes tend to develop fungal infections faster than normal human beings.Granulomatous-mycosis-fungoides-showing-erythematous-patches-and-plaques-Note-that

Preventive Measures:

Mycosis can be prevented by maintaining good hygiene, as well as keeping the skin clean and dry. It is important to maintain tidiness and washing after touching other people or animals. Sports clothing also be washed after every use as fungal infections are contagious.

Clinical Significance:

Cutaneous Mycoses are caused by a group of related fungi, the dermatophytes which are also called dermatophytoses. These Dermatophytoses are characterized by itching and scaling skin patches. Fungal diseases are usually identified according to affected tissue, but for a given disease, it can be caused by any one or several organisms. Some organisms can cause more than one disease depending on the site of infection or condition of the skin.

Treatment:

Depending on the Nature of infection, mycoses are treated by Antifungal drugs. Example of antifungals include: Fluconazole and amphotericin B which are used in the treatment of most severe fungal infections. Azoles like ketoconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine are drugs used to treat skin infections. Candida albicans is one of the Yeast infections which are caused in the vagina and can be treated with medicated suppositories such as tioconazole and pessaries whereas skin yeast infections are treated with medicated ointments.

Types of Head and Neck Surgery

HeadTransoral Laser Microsurgery (TLM)

TLM is used for tumors in throat and larynx and was first proposed in 1972. General anesthesia is given for patients who are undergoing TLM for throat of larynx. No visible scars are seen as the surgery is performed through the mouth. A thin endoscope is inserted though the mouth which has a specially designed microscope which allows the surgeon to see the tumor and the surrounding tissues during the surgery.

In TLM instead of scalpel to cut through the tissue a highly specialized carbon dioxide laser beam is used, and it produces less heat energy which limits the damage to the tissues around the tumor.

There are different laser systems available for use with TLM, if the cancer if larynx is diagnosed in earlier stages then digital AcuBlade laser surgery is used. In this method the specialized robotic adapter creates precise incisions.

System designed by Lumenis uses computer to operate, the surgeon program the computer by entering the information about the procedure, laser beam pattern, incision length and depth the laser light penetrate. The surgery is done by manipulating the joystick on an operating microscope. The carbon dioxide laser moves in straight, curved and circular patterns while minimizing the effect on the surrounding tissues.

Flexible fiber-optic carbon dioxide laser id another type for throat cancer with high risk of bleeding.

Endoscopic Thyroid and Neck Surgery

Patients with thyroid cancer or benign thyroid tumors for surgery is needed, traditional thyroid surgery with an open incision in the neck or robotic thyroidectomy or minimally invasive thyroid surgery is done.

 

In Robotic thyroidectomies the view of the operative field is magnified, increasing the surgical precision and reducing the risk of complications.


Robotic Thyroidectomy

Robotic surgery uses advanced technology that allows surgeons to safely remove certain thyroid tumors through discrete incisions several inches away from the neck. In order to avoid scar on the neck.

The surgeon cuts a 1-inch to 2-inch incision in the folds of skin under the patient’s arm and inserts the systemic robotic arms, which have been customized to resemble standard surgical instruments. The surgeon guides the robotic arms beneath the skin.

The surgeon views the surgical field on a 3-D screen, which magnifies up to 10 times. The skilled surgeons the systemic robotic arms as one might control conventional surgery. The instruments present on the robotic arm can move with 7 degrees and rotates 540 degrees for movement and providing the easy operating with delicate tissues with precision

Robotic thyroidectomy is not suitable for all thyroid tumors. If the thyroid tumor is less than 3 cm in size and is likely to be benign, then robotic surgery may be an option.

Impacts of unrefined kerosene on testosterone levels

PCOS 2Kerosene could be a distillate of unrefined petroleum that contains aliphatic, fragrant and a assortment of other branched immersed and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The utilize of unrefined lamp fuel has been a common hone in east Africa and other nations for numerous a long time, with the conviction of it diminishing the sex drive (moxie) at the pubertal arrange. Within the course of every day suppers utilization understudies are uncovered to measurements of lamp fuel as a dietary supplement, more often than not without their assent.

The method of adolescence comes about within the discharge of a few particular hormones which are fundamentally capable for the improvement of auxiliary sex characteristics and for the development of regenerative capabilities in boys.

Amid this arrange an increment in testosterone causes an increment within the sex drive (moxie), extension of the regenerative organs such as the penis and testicles, the generation of sperm, increment of muscle mass and bringing down of the voice, expanded recurrence of erection, and the development of facial, chest, areola and pubic hair among boys. The connect between testosterone (T) levels and the sexual drive was illustrated in a ponder done utilizing youthful boys with the discoveries showing that the youthful boys who had higher levels T levels moreover detailed higherlevels of sexual action.

It can be deduced that hormones may improve sentiments of sexual excitement in teenagers but how they act on those sentiments is exceptionally much decided by different inner and outside factors.it was famous that youthful boys with higher T levels were more likely to lock in in forceful behavior.

Beneath conditions of risk or unjustifiable treatment, they were appeared to be forceful. They advance appeared a connect between higher T level and a lower resilience for disappointment. Encourage to these, they too watched that when no inciting circumstance happened, T levels did not foresee hostility. Different creature thinks about conducted on mice illustrated the interface between forceful behaviour and expanded T levels. In a think about on mice uncovered to fly lamp fuel persistently for 90 days, there was a watched expanded frequency within the battling of the test bunch mice.PCOS 3

 Kerosene is promptly accessible and at decently low costs all through the nation. The essential utilize is for lighting and in cooking stoves. Whether or not lamp fuel supplementation is successful in diminishing charisma has not been experimentally tried. Assist, the dietary utilize of lamp fuel in schools to tame sexual drive happens with small or no care at all on its conceivable unsafe impacts on the well being status these understudies. In spite of the fact that a few data is as of now accessible on the impact of dietary kerosene supplementation in creatures and/or people/ such thinks about have fizzled to supply comprehensive data on impacts on T levels, connect to animosity and body tissue harmfulness.

Cancer: Establishing metastasis

Human VRK1 Is an Early Response Gene and Its Loss Causes a Block in Cell Cycle Progression??Radiology
In mammalian cells, the regulatory proteins that control the cell cycle are necessary due to the requirements of living in a heterogeneous environment of cellular interactions and growth factors. VRK1 is a new serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates several transcription factors and is associated with proliferation phenotypes.

Scientists have discovered that a protein called VRK1 could help cancer take root in new parts of the body. It was discovered that VRK1 is necessary for the mesenchymal to epithelial transition, which scientists suspect may be important for the establishment of metastases. The expression of the VRK1 gene is activated by the addition of serum to the cells deprived of food, which indicates that it is required for the exit of the G0 phase and the entry in G1; a response that parallels the re-expression of MYC, FOS and CCND1 genes (cyclin D1), suggesting that VRK1 is an early response gene. The expression of the VRK1 gene is also closed by serum extraction.

The promoter of the human VRK1 gene cloned in a luciferase reporter responds similarly to serum. In response to serum, the expression level of the VRK1 protein has a positive correlation with cell proliferation markers such as phosphorylated Rb or PCNA, and is inversely correlated with cell cycle inhibitors such as p27. Removal of VRK1 by siRNA results in a G1 block in cell division and in the loss of phosphorylated Rb, cyclin D1 and other proliferation markers. The elimination of VRK1 by siRNA induces a reduction of cell proliferation.. VRK1 is colocalized with p63 in proliferating areas of squamous epithelium, and identifies a subpopulation in the basal layer.

They observed that cells with high levels of VRK1 were more apt to form cell-to-cell connections and had lower levels of mesenchymal markers that are often present in cancer cells. On the contrary, the cells seemed to undergo the opposite transition, from mesenchymal to epithelial. The cells were much less likely to migrate. If high levels of VRK1 caused cancer cells to migrate more slowly, perhaps VRK1 was necessary to allow cells to colonize a new area of ​​the body.

Significance

VRK1 is an immediate early response gene required for entry into G1, and due to its involvement in normal cell proliferation and division, it could be a new target for the development of inhibitors of cell proliferation. In addition, VRK1 may one day serve as a biomarker for aggressive cancers, which could inform oncologists as they decide on more advanced or conservative treatments.