Category Archives: Infectious Diseases

Why Parents should be More Careful: Paediatric Infectious Diseases

pediatric-diseases-headerYoung Children are readily transmitting and acquire infections and there are liable to endogenous infections because of the breakdown of their normal defenses by unwellness, invasive procedures or medical aid. Most of the infections are caused by microorganism, viral, parasitic infections or fungal infections area unit every kind of infectious diseases which will build your child sick and are reasons for concern.

If your child features a revenant or persistent unwellness caused by an infecting agent like microorganism, a fungus, a parasite, or different rare infection. Children’s don’t seem to be simply tiny adults. Their bodies area unit growing and have distinctive medical wants. They cannot continuously answer medical queries and don’t seem to be ready to hold back and cooperative.

Common Paediatric Infectious Diseases that which seen in children’s are Sore throat, Ear Pain, Urinary tract Infection, Skin Infection, Bacterial Sinusitis, Gastrointestinal infections etc. Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a problem in some medicine hospitals, typically in intensive care and oncology units.

Most of the Infecting agent’s which transferred through the microorganism in water quality cause Water borne diseases, Air-borne diseases and food preparation, particularly in childhood. Outside the health care setting preventative and protecting measures are important for providing most and comprehensive care for prevent from infections and safety of the child.

Can we get infections even from Hospitals?

18Healthcare-associated infections will happen throughout a patient’s hospitalization or when discharge from the medical care centers also. Organisms from HAIs may influence attention personnel and visitors. These infections will be caused within the hospital, home, rehabilitation centers, furthermore as extended care facilities. Immunocompromised patients, the aged and young children square measure typically a lot of inclined than others by the effect of microorganisms.

One of the foremost common wards wherever HAIs occur is that the medical care unit (ICU), wherever doctors treat serious diseases. As medical aid becomes a lot of advanced and antibiotic resistance will increase, the cases of HAIs can grow. the foremost common pathogens that because of health facility infections square measure cocci aureus, bacterial species like aeruginosa, and E. coli.19

Nosocomial infections which don’t seem to be simply restricted to microorganisms like bacteria, viruses and fungal parasites also. Commonest inflicting infections are Urinary tract infections (UTIs), Surgical site infections, intestinal flu, meningitis, and respiratory illness. Nosocomial infections are leads to emerging and re-Emerging Infectious Diseases. Infections could also be caused by microorganism acquired from another person within the hospital (cross-infection) or could also be caused by the patient’s own flora.

Approaches to Control and Prevention of the Nosocomial infections and parasitic diseases are includes correct personal hygiene and hand washing on a part of the hospital workers, complete sterilization of medical instrumentation, and providing a clean, hygienic atmosphere within the health care facilities.

Bacterial Diseases

BactThe study is the first to show that the chemical — known as allicin — could be an effective treatment against a group of infectious bacteria that is highly resistant to most antibiotics.

Allicin is a natural compound secreted by garlic bulbs. This chemical compound ward off a closely-related group of plant pathogens found in soil and water habitats.

In the 1980s, a bacteria — known as the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) — emerged as a cause of serious and transmissible lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis.

 The Bcc are highly versatile plant and human pathogens that have not been studied to the same extent as other superbugs — such as MRSA. The bacteria produce potent antimicrobial agents, making them naturally drug-resistant and allowing them to survive in polluted and antibiotic-rich environments.

Caution Measures to limit the spread of Bcc infections among people with cystic fibrosis brought the number of cases down considerably. However, current therapies available to treat infections — that are potentially fatal — are limited and require the use of combinations of three to four antibiotics at a time.

It had now been found that allicin — which can be extracted by crushing raw garlic — inhibits the growth of bacteria and, at higher doses, kills the plant pathogens. The team suggests that allicin kills Bcc bacteria by chemically modifying key enzymes. This deactivates them and halts important biological processes within the pathogens‘ cells.

allicin-containing remedies could be used in allicin kills the bacteria combination with existing antibiotics to treat Bcc infections. However, the mechanisms by which allicin kills the bacterium has to be well understood before the chemical can be incorporated into new treatments.

At a time when novel antimicrobial agents are urgently required, chemical and microbiological research has the potential to unlock the rich reservoir of antimicrobial compounds present in plants such as garlic. Allicin-containing compounds merit further investigation as adjuncts to existing treatments for infections caused by Bcc.”

“The medicinal power of garlic has a rich history that dates back thousands of years but the chemical structure of Allicin was only revealed in the 1940s. This work suggests that modern methods should be used to further expand our knowledge of this enigmatic molecule and rejuvenate its potential applications.”

Zoonotic diseases- Rabies alert….!!!

Rabies-Vaccination-for-Pets-Rabid-Animals-1024x715Rabies is a Zoonotic infection that can be transmitted between humans and animals which has become a major public health problem. Among various zoonotic diseases, rabies and glanders cause millions of deaths. Overall prevalence of rabies cases which were around 48% are caused by dogs. Fatal neurological infection is caused by rabies in humans and other mammals, transmitted through the saliva of rabid animals via a bite or scratches.

Rodents such as rats, squirrels, and rabbits almost carry rabies and different wild animals like bats, raccoons, coyotes, foxes, and skunks are more likely to carry the disease. More than 200 diseases transmitted from animals to humans are through animal bites, arthropod vectors especially ticks and mosquitoes, air contact and direct contact transmission with the infected animal.

Rabies is a preventable viral infection of warm-blooded creatures frequently transmitted through the bite of an infected organism. Animals that have furious rabies may be very agitated or extremely aggressive towards different creatures, protests or even their own appendages. These animals ordinarily dribble exorbitantly, which can exhibit frothing at the mouth affected with rabies.

To stop the transmission of rabies, vaccinations are the best way and vaccinate animals like cattle, dogs and cats are against to rabies virus, and it may reduce the spread of Rabies virus.

Bacteria that grow in Oxygen deficit condition

 Anaerobic Bacteria

Scientists have uncovered a mechanism by which bacterial cells in crowded, anaerobic environment access oxygen for energy generation which ensures survival of the cell. The finding could clarify how a few microscopic organisms, for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, can flourish in oxygen-poor conditions like biofilms and resist antibiotics. P. aeruginosa biofilm diseases are a main source of death for individuals suffering from cystic fibrosis, a hereditary condition that affects the lungs and the digestive system.

 

Microscopic organisms rarely live by themselves as single-celled organisms. Most rather develop in networks, utilizing the strength of numbers to form a biofilm with tissue-like properties similar to a scaffold that serves to strengthen the community , making it up to 1,000 times more resistant to most antibiotics.

 

Every individual cell should without anyone else extract electrons from food that are then transported along the cell’s membrane until they reach point that they an oxygen atom. The energy releases during this metabolic process is used to sustain life.Research has demonstrated that a few microscopic organisms, including P. aeruginosa, have evolved different strategies to respond to and cope with low-oxygen conditions in biofilms. Networks of microbes can, for instance, change the general structure of the biofilm with the goal that its surface zone to-volume ratio  is higher and a larger proportion of the cells inside can get to the oxygen on the outside. P. aeruginosa produces chemical substances called phenazines, which carries electrons from inside to the outside of the cell and eventually to oxygen available at a distance.

 

Another system is to make alternative versions of terminal oxidases, enzymes in the layer that exchange electrons to oxygen, which utilize oxygen more productively or are better at scavenging oxygen when its concentration is low. While there have been various researches done to examine the importance of these enzymes and srategies for P. aeruginosa development, they have largely been conducted  in well-oxygenated liquid cultures in the lab. P. aeruginosa contaminates  human and develops as a biofilm and encounters vastly extraordinary conditions.

CD-8 cells to fight Cancer and Chronic Infections

Immune system has several components like cytokines, lymphocytes, macrophages etc. CD-8 cell is one major component produced by the host immune system to fight pathogens like bacteria, virus etc. Upon exposure to any invading pathogen like virus, CD8 cells multiply rapidly. At the initial stage they are effector cells, acting like foot soldiers and killing the pathogen. Once the pathogen is destroyed, most of these effector cells suicide to not continue attacking the body’s own cells. Few effector CD8 cells that survive become memory cells guarding the host from the respective pathogen and enacting faster combat reaction upon exposure to same pathogen.1

CAR T cell therapy gathered lot of attention from the public for its effective use in immunotherapy against cancer and chronic infections like HIV. Application of CD-8 cells in immunotherapy has been discussed recently. The usual problem encountered is that CD8 cells get exhausted or stop functioning properly in cancer and HIV infections.  However recent research by Shomyseh Sanjabi and her team have discovered a great finding which could offer a greater option against cancer and chronic infections.

The team identified 2 molecules namely Sprouty 1 and Sprouty 2. These molecules are known to modify the survival and development of effector and memory CD8 cells respectively. Upon animal model research, the team found that in absence of these molecules in CD8 cells, the CD8 effector cells survived in larger numbers and became memory cells. The memory cells without these molecules had better protective capacity against bacterial pathogens than normal CD8 memory cells with Sprouty molecules.

In tumors, as tumor cells consume lot of glucose the effector CD8cells get killed due to glucose deprive however the CD8 cells without Sprouty 1& 2 molecules can survive and function in a tumor environment upon consuming less glucose. Also the memory CD8 cells without Sprouty molecules can tackle cancer cells and also cells activated with latent virus in viral infections. Hence the memory plays a good role in immunotherapy and the future engineering of CAR Tcells in combination with genome editing technique like CRISPR can help in future to eliminate the Sprouty molecules and employ CD8 cells against cancer and infected cells.

New vaccine target for Malaria to control the birth of parasites

Malaria is an illness caused by the transfer of the Plasmodium parasite from bound mosquitos to humans, which is responsible for 429,000 deaths per annum in step with the World Health Organization. The life cycle of this parasite occurs within humans and mosquitos, permitting it to unfold spread at a great rate between the two species. Scientists have noticed that a protein concerned within the life cycle of the protozoal or malarial infection causing parasite is paving the way for a brand-new immunizing agent to scale back illness unfold. Most of the scientific community believe that the key to eliminating the illness is to prevent humans infected with the parasite from passing it on to doubtless dozens of mosquitos, every of which might then continue to infect more people.

On the surface of the reproductive cells of male protozoal infection, parasites may be a small molecule which is a protein referred to as HAP2 and it have discovered that by block it, simply targetable a part of the HAP2 molecule, fertilization between the male and feminine parasites is discontinuous. This ends up in protozoal infection parasites being unable to breed with efficiency, acting as a variety of parasitic birth control. In fertilization process, the male and feminine reproductive cells of the parasites would combine within the abdomen of their mosquito host, grow, then trip the secretion glands of the mosquito able to transmit the protozoal infection inflicting parasite once mosquito next bites an individual’s. Disturbing the method of fertilization prevents that can parasites from travel to the secretion glands of the mosquito, thereby reducing the transmission of the infecting parasite to humans.

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In initial in vitro studies, the team created an antibody that can blocks HAP2 and else it to blood infected with protozoal infection. They then ascertained the amount of winning fertilization events among the parasites that disclosed a big 85.88 percent reduction in comparison with an effect experiment wherever no protein was administered. Finally, the study examined by the scientists however the blocking approach of protein HAP2- affected the transmission of parasites between human blood and mosquitos, victimization blood samples of patient with protozoal infection. The patient blood was combined with antibodies that block HAP2 that resulted in 77 percent reduction in transmission of the parasite from human blood to infected mosquitoes.

It is an inexpensive and straightforward target within the seek for vaccines that may lower the transmission rates of protozoal infection.

CONGENITAL ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION: Clinical Features, Evaluation, and Management of the Neonate

Zika virus is an arthropod-borne flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. Congenital Zika virus infection is associated with severe congenital anomalies. This topic will discuss issues related to newborns congenitally infected with Zika virus. Zika virus infection in pregnant women and other issues related to Zika virus infection, including epidemiology, travel advisories, and infection in older children and adults are reviewed separately.

 zik-1

Zika virus is a neurotropic virus that particularly targets neural progenitor cells. Murine and human placental studies support the hypothesis that maternal infection leads to placental infection and injury, followed by transmission of the virus to the fetal brain, where it kills neuronal progenitor cells and disrupts neuronal proliferation, migration, and differentiation, which slows brain growth and reduces the viability of neural cells. Zika virus is also associated with a higher rate of fetal loss throughout pregnancy, including stillbirths. Placental insufficiency is the mechanism postulated to induce fetal loss later in pregnancy.

 zik-2

A series from cases described histopathological findings in tissue from two new-borns with microcephaly and severe arthrogryposis who died shortly after birth and tissue from a microcephalic infant who died at age two months. In all cases, the mothers had symptoms consistent with Zika virus infection in the first trimester. The infants were born at 36, 38, and 38 weeks of gestation. Multiple congenital malformations were noted, including a wide range of brain abnormalities, craniofacial malformations, craniosynostosis, pulmonary hypoplasia, and multiple congenital contractures, consistent with fetal akinesia deformation sequence or severe arthrogryposis. In these cases, there was immunohistochemical and molecular evidence of virus persistence in the brain. The range of neuropathology included ventriculomegaly, lissencephaly (which commonly aligns with microcephaly), and cerebellar hypoplasia, all of which have been observed in other cases studied. Brains also showed evidence of tissue destruction, including calcifications, gliosis, and necrosis. The presence of necrosis suggests ongoing cellular injury, consistent with the demonstrated continued viral presence. Thus, the patterns of injury are likely to follow from both cellular injuries at the time of infection as well as subsequent damage as the brain develops. Evidence from cell culture systems places the neuronal precursor cell as a crucial target for Zika virus infection resulting in cell death. Loss of these cells early in development has been reported to substantially reduce the number of neurons generated and result in small brains without cortical gyration.

The Deadly virus : Ebola

Ebola viral Haemorrhagic Fever is a deadly illness caused by four totally different strains of Ebola virus. This virus infects humans and anthropoid primates.       The disease has killed thousands of individuals in sub-Saharan African nations since its discovery in 1976.

The term viral haemorrhagic fever is known as it because of the within the Democratic Republic of Congo where it was initially reported. It is selected as CDC grade four thereby indicating that it’s one in all the foremost dangerous pathogens on the world.

EHF incorporates a fifty to ninety % rate, with a speedy onset of symptoms that begin with a headache and raw throat and accomplish major internal & external haemorrhage and multiple organ failure. There is no glorious cure, and therefore the most up-to-date cases were reported at the tip of 2012 in African country.

Ebola virus.

Ebola virus spreads by direct contact with blood and secretions. It is thought to unfold through close contact with bodily secretions. Early clinical diagnosis is tough because the symptoms are nonspecific; Definitive diagnostic tests for viral haemorrhagic fever are VHF is enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay and/or PCR tests; microorganism cultivation and diagnostic test samples might also be used.

There is no customary treatment available for Ebola fever; solely adjuvant medical aid and experimental treatment is offered. There are several complications from viral haemorrhagic fever VHF inflicting a high rate (reported mortality rates equal regarding 25%-100%).

Prevention of viral haemorrhagic fever VHF is difficult; early testing and isolation of the patient and barrier protection (protective equipment) for caregivers (mask, gown, goggles, and gloves) is incredibly vital to stop people from being infected.

Researchers try to grasp the Ebola virus and pinpoint its ecological reservoirs to deduce however viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks occur and to establish an efficient immunizing agent against it.

The Deadly Virus :Ebola

Ebola Viral Haemorrhagic Fever is a deadly illness caused by four totally different strains of Ebola virus. These viruses infect each humans and anthropoid primates.
It has killed thousands of individuals in sub-Saharan African nations since its discovery in 1976.
The term viral haemorrhagic fever is known as it because of the within the Democratic Republic of the Congo where it was initially reported . It is selected as CDC grade four thereby indicating that it’s one in all the foremost dangerous pathogens on the world.

EHF incorporates a fifty to ninety % rate, with a speedy onset of symptoms that begin with a headache and raw throat and accomplish major internal and external haemorrhage and multiple organ failure. There’s no glorious cure, and therefore the most up-to-date cases were reported at the tip of 2012 in African country.

Ebola virus.

Ebola virus spreads by direct contact with blood and secretions. it’s thought to unfold through close contact with bodily secretions.

Early clinical diagnosing is tough because the symptoms are nonspecific; Definitive diagnostic tests for viral haemorrhagic fever VHF are enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay and/or PCR tests; microorganism cultivation and diagnostic test samples might also be used.

There is no customary treatment for Ebola fever; solely adjuvant medical aid and experimental treatment is offered. There are several complications from viral haemorrhagic fever VHF inflicting a high rate (reported mortality rates equal regarding 25%-100%).

Prevention of viral haemorrhagic fever VHF is difficult; early testing and isolation of the patient and barrier protection (protective equipment) for caregivers (mask, gown, goggles, and gloves) is incredibly vital to stop people from being infected.

Researchers try to grasp the Ebola virus and pinpoint its ecological reservoirs to deduce however viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks occur and to establish an efficient immunizing agent against it.