Category Archives: Engineering

Polymer Science Applications in Oil and Gas Industry

petrolPolymer chemists study large, complex molecules that are built up from many smaller units. They study how the monomers combine, and create useful materials with specific characteristics by manipulating the molecular structure of the monomers/polymers used, the composition of the monomer/polymer combinations, to a large extent, affect the properties of the final product by applying chemical and processing techniques.

Chemicals:

The chemical industry is crucial to modern world economies, and works to convert raw materials such as oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, and minerals into more than 80,000 different products. To make consumer products, as well as in the manufacturing, service, construction, agriculture, and other industries those base products are used. Majority of the chemical industry’s output is polymers and polymer-related, including elastomers, fibers, plastics, adhesives, coatings, and more. Rubber and plastic products, textiles, apparel, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and primary metals are the major industries served.

Oil & Gas

The entire oil and gas industry chain, from upstream oil and gas production activities, to midstream, and finally downstream refinery production of fuels, uses the polymeric materials only. Solid-state polymers such as plastics, fibers, and elastomers for use in oil well sites and off-shore platforms, with applications including construction of structures such as pipelines, propellants in hydraulic fracturing, and as coatings. Polymeric additives are used in upstream oil production applications as well stimulants, drilling fluids, corrosion inhibitors, scaling inhibitors, and viscosity modifiers. They are even used as components of cements used in protecting casings down hole.

In downstream operations, polymeric additives are used to overcome operational issues in the refinery, distribution systems, and storage tanks and in different fuel transport and combustion applications. Finally to improve performance features. To resolve specific issues at a refinery, polymers may be used as stand-alone products, and combined with other products to create a multi-functional package for use in finished fuels for the automotive industry.  Some specific examples of polymeric additives used in downstream applications include synthetic base stocks for lubricants, pipeline drag reducers, cold flow improvers, demulsifiers, deposit control additives, dispersants, friction modifiers, corrosion inhibitors, antifoamants, and viscosity improvers.

Nanotechnology Strategy by developing Nanocrystalline Materials

cryDevelopment of nanocrystalline tungsten-25%Rhenium alloy reinforced with hafnium carbide is a challenging task as these alloys are difficult to synthesize by conventional methods. The problem of these difficult to alloy elements can be addressed by using a unique combination of mechanical alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering SPS techniques via powder metallurgy route.  Rhenium was added to lower ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and to increase recrystallization temperature of tungsten. SPS is rapid consolidating technique which prevents grain growth.

Basically, glycan beautifies all mammalian cell surfaces through glycosylation. Glycan is one of the most important post-modifications of proteins. Glycans on cell surfaces facilitate a wide variety of biological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, cell-cell communication, immune response, intracellular signalling events and host-pathogen interactions. High-performance optical sensors are very important for rapid, sensitive and precise detection of chemical and biological species for various fields, including biomedical diagnosis, drug screening, food safety, environmental protection etc.

To explore the novel kinds of sensors with low cost, portability, sufficient sensitivity, high specificity, excellent reproducibility, and multiplexing detection capability still remain in high demand. Therefore, a significant advancement of silicon nanotechnology, functional silicon nanomaterial/Nano hybrids (e.g., fluorescent silicon nanoparticles, gold/silver nanoparticles-decorated silicon nanowires or silicon wafer, etc) featuring unique optical properties have been intensively employed for the design of high-quality fluorescent and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensors. Therefore, currently exists increasing concerns on the development of a kind of high-performance SERS platform, which is suitable for glycan expression of different cell lines and as well as used for the sensitive detection of glycans on live cells. Herein, we introduce the possibility of silicon-based probe for biomolecules of interest in the vicinity of cells using SERS.

These tool materials can withstand high temperatures and harsh conditions in joining application such as Friction Stir Welding FSW of steel and titanium alloys. FSW is a green process which does not emit fume and toxic fumes during the process.  Sintering was carried between 1500-1800oC. Mechanically alloyed and Spark Plasma Sintered alloy and composite were characterized by optical microscopy. Spark plasma sintered samples were further electrochemically etched in one molar concentrated solution of NaOH. The results of the FESEM images confirm microstructural revelation of these difficult to etch alloy and composites. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy FESEM and X-ray Diffraction.  Microstructural investigation of consolidated specimens was initially carried out by conventional etching and metallography techniques. Optical micrographs showed no visible signs of grain boundary etching.

Innovations in Exploration, Mining, and Processing

PetrolThe three major components of mining (exploration, mining, and processing) overlap sometimes. After a mineral deposit has been identified through exploration, the industry must make a considerable investment in mine development before production starts. Farther exploration near the deposit and more development drilling within the deposit are done while the mining is processing. In-situ mining, which is a special case that combines aspects of mining and processing but does not require the excavation, comminution, and waste disposal steps. Innovatively combined the main components, such as when in-situ leaching of copper is undertaken after conventional mining has rubblized ore in underground block-caving operations.

Exploration:

Mineral exploration has been driven mostly by Modern technology. Many mineral discoveries can be attributed to geophysical and geo-chemical technologies developed by both industry and government. New technology, such as tomographic imaging is newly applied to mineral exploration. Basic geological sciences, geophysical and geo-chemical methods, and drilling technologies Research could improve the effectiveness and productiveness of mineral exploration. These fields sometimes overlap, and developments in one area are likely to cross-fertilize research and development in other areas.

Geological Methods:

Underlying physical and chemical processes of formation are common to many metallic and non-metallic ore deposits. A geologic database would be beneficial not only to the mining industry but also to environmental scientists.

Most of the metallic ore deposits are formed through the interaction of an aqueous fluid and host rocks. Along the fluid flow pathway through the Earth’s crust, the fluids encounter changes in physical or chemical conditions at some point. That causes the dissolved metals to precipitate. In research on ore deposits, the focus has traditionally been on the location of metal depositions, i.e., the ore deposit itself.

Geochemical and Geophysical Methods:

Analyzing the soil, rock, water, vegetation, and vapor the Surface geo-chemical prospecting is involved. For example mercury and hydrocarbons in soil gas, for trace amounts of metals or other elements that may indicate the presence of a buried ore deposit.

In the discovery of numerous mineral deposits, geo-chemical techniques have played a key role, and they continue to be a standard method of exploration.

Novel aspects of Nanotubes

5A nanotube is a tubular particle made out of an extensive number of carbon atoms. Nanotubes having wide range of application in various fields such as Photovoltaic cells, targeted drug delivery, automobile industries, aerospace so on.

Now as per the recent studies, Researchers state that the weak van der Waals forces between the inner surface of the nanotube and the water molecules are strong enough to snap the oxygen and hydrogen atoms into place.

In the case of a two-dimensional ice, the molecules freeze regardless of the temperature and research provides valuable insight on ways to leverage atomic interactions between nanotubes and water molecules to fabricate nanochannels and energy-storing nanocapacitors.

Scientists built molecular models of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes with adjustable widths. They found boron nitride is best at obliging the state of water when the nanotubes are 10.5 angstroms wide.

The scientists definitely realized that hydrogen particles in firmly bound water go up against intriguing basic properties. Ongoing tests likewise demonstrated solid confirmation for the arrangement of nanotube ice and incited the analysts to fabricate thickness utilitarian hypothesis models to dissect the powers dependable.

When the water molecules are about 3 angstroms were modeled, inside carbon and boron nitride nanotubes of various chiralities and between 8 and 12 angstroms in diameter. They found that nanotubes in the middle diameters had the most effect on the balance between sub-atomic collaborations and van der Waals pressure that incited the change from a square water tube to ice.

If the nanotube is too small and only fit one water molecule, then the water keeps its amorphous shape. Van der Waals force starts to push water molecules into designed square shapes at the range of about 8 angstroms. Research shows that strongest interactions were found in boron nitride nanotubes due to the particular polarization of their atoms.

The nanotube ice could find use in molecular machines or as nanoscale capillaries, or foster ways to deliver a few molecules of water or sequestered drugs to targeted cells, like a nanoscale syringe.

Revolutionary technique for the rapid on-site detection and quantification of petroleum hydrocarbons:

The technique implies that the presence of hydrocarbons would now be able to be evaluated basically by utilizing a hand-held infrared spectrometer to take readings at the site of enthusiasm, without the need to take tests or perform any sort of preparing.

The strategy could be utilized for oil exploration purposes. It will likewise be especially helpful in evaluating and observing contaminated sites, for example, coastal land following off-shore oil slicks and mechanical locales got ready for urban redevelopment. Oil hydrocarbons are a significant asset, however, can likewise be really frightful ecological contaminants. They can stay in the earth for expanded timeframes and can be destructive to wildlife, plants and people. Better apparatuses to distinguish them make a fast reaction conceivable.

Press Pictures: Copyright

The method utilizes an infrared signal to identify the presence of oil hydrocarbons in tests. By differentiating, current strategies utilize inspecting and handling procedures that are work escalated, tedious, require sensitive equipment and are not appropriate to nearby on-site analysis. The capacity of this new procedure to quickly distinguish the presence of contaminants at the site can possibly give significant cost points of interest, as far as reduced testing costs and the avoidance of delays.

Quick examination enables prompt measures to be embraced to anticipate facilitate tainting or to constrain contaminant spread. A huge part of the time and money related costs associated with evaluating and remediating contaminated sites is devoured by checking and analysis. By diminishing investigation time and decreasing costs this new method can aid the quick and compelling distinguishing proof of oil and other oil-based products in the earth, and additional treatment and insurance of ecological resources threatened by petroleum contamination.

Nanotubes can change the shape of water

Insert water in Nanotube hole then the water molecules will align into a square rod, If the nanotube is just the right width. By using molecular models it can be demonstrated that weak van der Waals forces between the inner surface of the nanotube and the water molecules are strong enough to snap the oxygen and hydrogen atoms into place.

According to Molecular models of nanotube ice, water molecules take the shape of a square tube because of the pressure of a carbon nanotube at left and a boron nitride nanotube at right. The phenomenon is dependent upon the diameter of the nanotube. It is also known as two-dimensional “ice,” because the molecules freeze regardless of the temperature. To fabricate nanochannels and energy-storing nano capacitors, the research provides valuable insight on ways to leverage atomic interactions between nanotubes and water molecules.

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Boron nitride is best at constraining the shape of water when the nanotubes are 10.5 angstroms wide. The researchers built molecular models of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes with adjustable widths. The hydrogen atoms in tightly confined water take on interesting structural properties. Recent experiments on labs showed and prompted the researchers to build density functional theory models to analyze the forces responsible.

Researchers made 3 angstroms wide water molecules inside carbon and boron nitride nanotubes of various chiralities and the diameter is between 8 and 12 angstroms. They discovered that nanotubes in the middle diameters had the most impact on the balance between molecular interactions and van der Waals pressure that prompted the transition from a square water tube to ice.

If the water molecule is too large as compared to nanotube, the water keeps its amorphous shape. The nanotubes’ van der Waals force starts to push water molecules into organized square shapes.” But at about 8 angstroms, due to the particular polarization of atoms, the strongest interactions were found in boron nitride nanotubes. Nanotube ice can be used in molecular machines or foster ways to deliver a few molecules of water to targeted cells, like a nanoscale syringe.

Overview of Data Mining Applications in Oil and Gas Exploration:

Oil and gas supply chain consists of four main phases: 1) Extraction and Exploration, 2) Refining, 3) Transportation, and 4) Distribution and Marketing. In the context of cost reduction, exploration is the act of minimizing the expenses associated with finding commercial oil and gas deposits. These expenses increases from the mentioned main elementary activities satellite Infrared /Radar/Microwave Surveying, Aerial Imaging, Geo Botany prospecting and Geochemical Exploration; Aerial magnetic, Electromagnetic & Gravity Surveying, Seismic Surveying and Exploratory wells.

The technology applied in oil and gas exploration is Data Mining that can create cost reductions and bring about considerable financial benefits. By applying the advanced techniques, such as pattern recognition, and particular identification to a more comprehensive set of data collected during seismic acquisition, Geologists may be able to identify potentially productive seismic trace signatures that have been overlooked in newly acquired or archived data. Application of data mining in oil and gas exploration is in the experimental stage with much of the efforts focused on data-intensive computing. Oil and Gas Companies, Business Analytics service providers and Academic institutions are working on various applications. The categories are: structural geology and reservoir property-issues.

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In oil and gas exploration process, Structural Geology is accurately surveying the top, bottom and lateral extent of geological structures is important as these structures might produce hydrocarbons. This locating, in presence of oil and gas, assists in determining the thickness of the hydrocarbon bearing (rock) layers and consequentially in deciding the economic viability of the reserve. Furthermore, using accurate mapping, by the optimal placement of the wells, production in multi-layered reservoirs, where shale and sand layers are laminated, can be carried out from and combined into a single well, and, therefore, result in cost savings.

Reservoir Property-Issues The earliest discoveries of oil and gas deposits were based on determining the structural traps. But now a different type of trap became important, that is stratigraphic traps. Stratigraphic traps are one must go beyond the structure and deduce possible lithology (identifying rock layers in the subsurface) and probable presence of oil and gas. Horizontal lithological analysis is known as lithofacies analysis.

Graphene nanoribbons- Quantum chains

Scientists have discovered a leap forward that could be utilized for exact Nano transistors-perhaps even quantum PCs. A material that comprises of atom of a solitary component however has totally unique properties relying upon the nuclear plan – this may sound odd, yet is really reality with graphene nano-strips. The strips, which are just a couple of carbon iotas wide and precisely one particle thick, have altogether different electronic properties relying upon their shape and width: conductor, semiconductor.

These days analysts have now prevailing in definitely changing the properties of the strips by particularly change their shape. The specific component of this innovation is that not electronic properties of atom said above to be changed – it can likewise be utilized to produce particular neighbourhood quantum states. On the off chance that the width of a restricted graphene nanoribbon changes, for this situation from seven to nine molecules, an uncommon zone is made at the progress: in light of the fact that the electronic properties of the two different contrast in an extraordinary, alleged topological way, an ensured and consequently exceptionally vigorous new quantum state is made in the change zone.

Crystallography- blog 24-08

In light of these novel quantum chains, exact nano-transistors could be fabricated later on for the best approach to Nano gadgets. This isn’t exactly as basic: for the fast and development of the electronic properties, every one of the few hundred or even a large number of iotas must be in the perfect place.

While in transit to nanoelectronics Based on these novel quantum chains, exact nano-transistors could be produced later on an outing into the quantum domain: Ultrasmall transistors – and in this way the subsequent stage in the further scaling down of electronic circuits – are the conspicuous application potential outcomes here: despite the fact that they are in fact testing, hardware in light of nano-transistors really work essentially as microelectronics. Regardless of whether this potential can really be misused for future quantum PCs stays to be seen, be that as it may. It isn’t sufficient to make limited topological states in the nanoribbons.

Human skin hindrance structure and capacity examined by cryo-EM and sub-atomic progression re-enactment

In vitro experimentation on biomolecular buildings has today achieved an abnormal state of complexity, exemplified by ongoing advancement in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single molecule examination. Be that as it may, a more entire comprehension of biomolecular capacity may just be accomplished by additionally considering biomolecular edifices straightforwardly in their regular habitat inside the living cell or tissue. Natural cells, or tissues, are commonly swarmed multicomponent conditions lacking long-run arrange. This makes it hard to acquire unmistakable diffraction designs from inside cells. By and by, access to cell close local high-goals information is today conceivable through the cryo-EM of vitreous segments innovation.Microsoft Word - Graphical Abstract

Molecular structure and function of the skin’s permeability barrier

In the present examination the atomic structure and capacity of the human skin’s boundary structure were dissected. The skin was produced 360 million years back to enable the primary vertebrates to leave the seas and adjust to an existence ashore, by filling in as a hindrance shielding from lack of hydration.

The skin’s boundary limit is situated to an intercellular lipid structure implanting the cells of the shallow most layer of skin—the stratum corneum. The lipid structure comprises of stacked lipid layers made from ceramides (CER), cholesterol (CHOL) and free unsaturated fats (FFA) in a generally molar 1:1:1 proportion.md_ckant_overview

Analysis of cellular cryo-EM data using MD simulation and EM simulation
Atomistic MD recreation joined with EM re-enactment might be utilized to examine cell high goals cryo-EM information. Picture examination is then considering an iterative procedure where the MD demonstrate is changed in a stepwise manner until the point that ideal correspondence is accomplished between the first cryo-EM information got from the natural example and the mimicked EM information got from the MD display.

Molecular dynamics simulations
Through atomistic MD reenactments thermodynamically stable sub-atomic models might be built and equilibrated, ideally at long time scales. The connections between the particles of the model are depicted by biomolecular constrain fields partitioned into a fortified (communications portrayed utilizing securities, edges and torsion edges) and a non-reinforced part. MD recreations might be utilized to contemplate the atomic properties of a framework at a level difficult to reach by certifiable analyses. In any case, with a specific end goal to create significant data the recreated information must be approved against unique exploratory information. One method for doing this is by looking at reproduced EM pictures got from atomistic MD models with unique cryo-EM pictures gathered from organic cells or tissues.

Optimization of the skin barrier model
Beginning from the lipid hindrance show framework portrayed by the spread bilayer demonstrate, the framework was improved in an iterative way concerning I) the relative lipid piece (counting sphingosine-and phytosphingosine based ceramides, CHOL, FFA, acyl ceramides, cholesterol sulfate, and charged FFA), ii) the appropriation of CHOL over the layered structure, iii) the dispersion of lipid chain lengths and, iv) the quantity of water particles related with the lipid headgroups.

Conclusions
MD demonstrating joined with cryo-EM to break down the atomic structure and capacity of the human skin’s porousness boundary.

EM designs coordinating unique cryo-EM designs from skin amazingly nearly. Strikingly, the closer the individual MD model’s lipid structure was to that announced in human stratum corneum, the better was the match between the MD model’s EM recreation designs and the first cryo-EM designs. In addition, the nearest coordinating MD model’s figured water penetrability and thermotropic conduct were observed to be good with that of human skin.

The new information on the point by point structure and arrangement of the skin’s porousness hindrance, alongside the accessibility of MD recreation, will encourage thorough material science-based skin penetrability counts utilizing more practical models than have already been accessible. This may help anticipating properties of medications cooperating with the skin and upgrading them for percutaneous medication conveyance. Also, it might be utilized for skin danger appraisal. The impacts and components of skin porousness improving plans may likewise be explored and streamlined in silico.

Crystallization: Protein and X-Ray crystallisation

Protein crystallization is the procedure of development of a protein crystal. While some protein crystal have been seen in nature, protein crystallization is mostly utilized for logical or modern purposes, most prominently for consider by X-beam crystallography. Proteins are the natural macromolecules that are made out of long chain of amino acids. It is the procedure for the development of tiny protein crystal. This procedure is generally utilized by mechanical and logical purposes.

A protein regularly works in liquid conditions in this way protein crystallization process is for the most part completed in water. The primary objective behind protein crystallization and crystallography is to grow very much arranged protein precious stones that conquer the intrinsic delicacy of protein particles. The exploration consider inspects the protein crystallography item advertise with help of various criteria, for example, the item compose, application, and its land extension. Numerous elements, for example, immaculateness of proteins, grouping of proteins, pH, temperature of medium, may impact the procedure of protein crystallization and crystallography.

Different methods of Protein Crystallisation:

  • Vapor diffusion
  • Microbatch
  • Microdialysis
  • High throughput crystallization screening
  • Free-interface diffusion
  • x-ray diffraction

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Protein and X-ray crystallography is basically a type of terribly high resolution research. It allows us to examine super molecule structures at the atomic level and enhances our understanding of supermolecule perform. Specifically we are able to study however proteins move with alternative molecules; however they endure conformational changes, and the way they perform chemical process within the case of enzymes. Armed with this info we are able to design novel drugs that concentrate on a specific super molecule, or rationally engineer associate protein for a selected process. The crystallization of biological macromolecules has been represented in great detail. every crystallographer approached the matter in an individual way; the procedures are mostly standardized, particularly as a results of the supply of crystallization kits, in addition as robots for the preparation of solutions, setting up crystallizations