Author Archives: Rohit Casper

Recent advancement in the field of surgery


As we know medical advancement in the field of robotics and noninvasive surgery have changed the procedures in the operating room. But the fact is that these technologies have not yet reached the success to the full extreme due to their novelty and cost.


Minimally invasive surgery can be considered as the one of the boons to the medical field because the surgery would not be possible without the doctor in the past decades but now the surgical procedures has been modernized the best example is the natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery where the instruments enters through the openings in the body instead of cutting the skin.


The next level improvement in the medical field after the minimally invasive surgery is the robotic surgery. Robots have been introduced into the field of surgery only in the recent years. In these kinds of robotic surgery, the doctors usually control the robots through the computer. This fact proves that the surgery nowadays has been modernized and gained greater development when compared to the past decades.


More interesting development than the robotic surgery is the telesurgery in which the doctors may not be physically present they may present in the different countries and may assist the surgery through telecommunication. The challenging fact is the time delay in the transmission of data between two locations.

It is obvious that the growth in the field of surgery has improved the standard of living of the patients and made the surgery painless and took the medical field to the next generation.

Eating Disorder

EatingIf you are obsessed over food, body weight and shape, there might be a chance of having Eating Disorder. People often think that eating disorders are a lifestyle choice. But they are actually serious and often fatal mental illness and are an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity in an individual. According to various studies on eating disorders, the results found that the frequency of occurrence is much less in men as compared to adolescent girls and young adult women and a large proportion of eating disorder patients were exercising excessively during an acute phase of the disorder.

Types of Eating Disorders

They are divided into three diagnostic categories: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge-eating disorder.

  • Anorexia Nervosa, characterized by inadequate intake of food. In this condition, people may have unrealistic perception of overweight, even when they are dangerously underweight and thus, they severely restrict the amount of food they eat, and eat very small quantities of only certain foods. It can lead to damaging health effects, such as loss of bones and skin integrity, increases the risk of heart attacks and related heart problems, brain damage, multi-organ failure, and infertility. The mortality rate is highest in this disease as compared to other mental disorders, either due to complications associated with starvation or the patient commits suicide.
  • Bulimia Nervosa, characterized by an excessive intake of food followed by compensatory behaviors for the overeating such as forced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, excessive exercise, or a combination of these behaviors. Although people usually maintain their relatively normal and healthy weight, but the irregular food behaviors can have injuring effects, such as chronically inflamed and sore throat, severe gastrointestinal problems, severe dehydration, and various heart difficulties resulting from an electrolyte imbalance.
  • Atypical eating disorders: There are many other types of eating disorders including Binge-eating Disorder (lack of control on eating), other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED), Diabulimia, etc.

Cause of Eating Disorder

Although the cause of eating disorders is not clear but it seems like combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors plays an important role in the development of these illnesses.

  • A high proportion of individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (way the person sees themselves) also had some type of eating disorder.
  • Biological conditions such as hormone irregularities and nutrition deficiencies can also lead to eating disorders.
  • The environmental factors include Dysfunctional family dynamic, aesthetically oriented sports, Professions and careers, childhood traumas and other stressful transitions.

Treatment for an Eating Disorder

People often ignore such conditions which then results in severe adverse effects. Because of severity and complexities of these conditions, it has become necessary to establish a comprehensive and professional treatment. Addressed with medical doctors, nutritionists, and therapists for complete care, the treatment includes:

  • Individual, group, and/or family psychotherapy
  • Medical care and monitoring
  • Nutritional counselling
  • Medications

Artificial Intelligence for Radiology

Artificial Intelligence in Radiology

Introduction: Artificial intelligence (AI) will bring changes to the professional life of radiologists, as well as changing many other aspects of our lives. Since the invention of electricity, the internet and, more recently, artificial intelligence, the technologies of general use have made it possible for societies to progress and improve their quality of life.

Artificial intelligence and machine learning tools have the potential to analyse large data sets and extract meaningful information to improve patient outcomes, a skill that is also useful in radiology and pathology.

The images obtained by the MRI machines, the computed tomography (CT) scanners and the radiographs, as well as the biopsy samples, allow the doctors to see the internal functioning of the human body.

Factor Effecting

  • Abundance of data
  • Development of artificial neural networks
  • Increased affordability of the hardware

The future of radiology augmented with Artificial Intelligence

Radiologists are not familiar with Artificial Intelligence, pioneering work in the perception of medical images in the 80s. We are experts in domains in medical imaging, medical physics and radiation safety. But in the last 6 to 12 years, there have been substantial innovations in obtaining images from deep learning methods of image classification. Today’s artificial neural networks have rates of accuracy that surpass those of human radiologists in narrow-based tasks, such as nodule detection The first step in formulating a strategy is to define our capabilities and identify the competitive forces that represent a threat. We are facing competition from other medical specialties who spend more time interacting with patients and who can choose to buy AI technologies. We also face competition from suppliers of equipment that make imaging devices, such as CT scanners.

General use cases, potential impact and implementation strategy

They can be divided into task-based categories:

Detection and prediction automation

Intelligence augmentation

Precision diagnostics and big data

Radiological decision support systems

Genetic regulation of metabolomic biomarkers: Paths to cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes


The research has revealed eleven new genetic regions associated with the blood levels of the metabolites, including new loci affecting well-established risk markers for cardiovascular disease and potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes.

In a study to the genetic variance of human metabolism, specialists have identified thirty one regions of the genome that were related with levels of circulating metabolites, i.e., small molecules that take part in different chemical reactions of human body. Many of the studied metabolites are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease or related disorders, accordingly the loci uncovered may provide valuable insight into the biological processes leading to common diseases.

Lab tests used in the clinic typically monitor one or few circulating metabolites. The researchers used a high throughput method called nuclear magnetic resonance that can measure more than hundred different metabolites in one assay. This provides a considerably more in-depth picture of circulating metabolic compounds.

The group assayed 117 detailed metabolic markers, including amino acids, lipids and lipoprotein subclasses, and conducted the largest genome-wide association analysis of this type, in terms of study sample size of 8330 individuals and 7.7 million genomic markers studied. They revealed, in total, 31 genetic regions related with the blood levels of the metabolites.

Among the discoveries were two new loci influencing serum cholesterol subclass measures, well-established risk markers for cardiovascular disease, and five new loci affecting levels of amino acids recently discovered to be potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes. The found variants have significant effects on the metabolite levels, the effect sizes being in general considerably larger than the known common variants for complex disease have.

Additionally, using twin pair samples, the scientists indicated that the metabolite levels show a high degree of heritability. This result suggests that the studied metabolites are describing better the underlying biology than the routinely used lab tests. In this way, the examination provides further support for the use of detailed data on multitude of metabolites in genetic studies to provide novel biological insights and to help in elucidating the processes leading to common diseases.

Seven common-sense building blocks for your child’s brain

 1aAll youngsters contrast in their natural vulnerability to life encounters in a ‘for better and for more terrible’ way. A few children are especially delicate to both exceptionally unpleasant and exceedingly sustaining situations. Like orchids, such youngsters sprout if affectionately developed, however shrink and wilt whenever ignored.

Conversely, versatile flexible kids who don’t get effortlessly focused resemble little dandelions, they’ll develop and flourish anyplace.

Studies are currently indicating ‘orchid’ and ‘dandelion’ qualities connected to specific compounds or mind concoction receptors, if and just whenever joined with early youth lethal pressure, can trigger conduct issues and state of mind issue further down the road.

The Dunedin examine has demonstrated that early beneficial encounters shape creating mind engineering and unequivocally influence whether kids grow up to be sound, profitable individuals from society. Poisonous pressure — characterized as pressure that is extraordinary or dependable or happens outside a domain of steady, connected parental figure connections — crashes sound mental health, with harming consequences for learning, conduct, and physical and psychological wellness over the life expectancy.

While composing The Women’s Brain Book I spent a lot of Chapter 2 investigating what can turn out badly amid youth – from the impacts of injury to family worry to learning negative sex generalizations. I stressed that if perusers had youthful youngsters they were presumably prepared to drop the book and keep running off to mass purchase cotton fleece and air pocket wrap.

Given what we think about typical and irregular mental health, what encounters do newborn children and kids (the dandelions and the orchids) need to flourish, not simply survive? What can grown-ups who bring up kids do to cultivate sound, upbeat brains?

Looked with swimming through many years of youth advancement writing, I rather grabbed the telephone and called my companion and partner Dr Kristy Goodwin. Goodwin is a kids’ learning and improvement specialist and she has condensed seven basic encounters or, as she calls them ‘fabricating squares’ for ideal mental health.

What do developing brains need to flourish?

  1. Attachments and relationships.

Warm, unsurprising and cherishing connections enable youngsters to feel secure, protected and unstressed.

  2.Language .

Newborn children and youthful kids require abundant chances to hear and utilize dialect: ‘serve-and-return’ collaborations are vital.

  1. Sleep

Rest is imperative for youngsters’ enthusiastic, physical and mental advancement.

  1. Play.

Through play, infants and youngsters create subjective abilities, innovativeness and passionate direction. They require adequate chances to try and investigate, incorporating time outside in nature. Dr Goodwin features the cutting edge need to neutralize ‘screen time’ with ‘green time’.

  1. Physical Movement.

Kids need to ace basic then complex engine aptitudes with the end goal to grow more advanced, higher-arrange thinking abilities later on.

  1. Nutrition.

Quality nourishment is crucial for ideal advancement. Kids’ weight control plans should be wealthy in sustenances that contain fundamental unsaturated fats ideal for mental health.

  1. Executive Function Skills.

Kids need to ace basic higher-arrange thinking aptitudes, for example, drive control and working memory.

“Given that we know encounter represents around 70% of a youngster’s advancement. It’s important that we give them the correct sorts of encounters.” Dr Kristy Goodwin.

Poulton, Goodwin and I concur that adolescence is a hallowed time. It’s a remarkable period in the life expectancy that should be cherished, supported and ensured.

Why single embryo transfer during IVF sometimes results in twins or triple


It has been known for some time that it is way better to transfer a single embryo to a woman’s womb during Assisted Reproduction Treatment (ART) instead of a few embryos in order to dodge multiple pregnancies and the dangers related with it such as fetal passings, premature delivery, miscarriage, and low birthweight. However, indeed when Single Fetus Transfer (SET) is performed, some women still ended up being pregnant with twins or indeed triplets.

World’s driving reproductive medicine journals, analysts have explored one of the reasons as a result of a process called zygotic splitting. Zygotic splitting after SET highlights factors that may increment the chance. These incorporate utilizing frozen defrosted embryos for SET, developing the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the laboratory for five or six days before SET, and assisted hatching, in which a small hole is made within the layer of proteins encompassing the embryo (the zona pellucida) to assist the embryo hatch out and connect itself to the wall of the woman’s womb.

Zygotic splitting happens between days two and six when the zygote divides, ordinarily into two, and each zygote at that point goes on to develop into an embryo, leading to identical twins (or triplets in case it separates into three). These are known as “monozygotic” twins (or triplets). At present, the number of embryos that can be exchanged is no more than 2 for women beneath 40 (or for those getting donated eggs as givers are beneath 35) or for women over 40 no more than 3.

There are numerous dangers inherent to both the mother and the babies born in a multiple birth pregnancy:-

  • Pregnancy complications
  • Higher rates of miscarriage
  • Higher chance of intercession in conveyance
  • Premature birth

It is vital to point out that although the use of single embryo transfer has increased around the world, the predominance of zygotic splitting pregnancies has not. This may be because Art methods, and also the cultures in which blastocysts are matured in the lab, have improved in recent years, decreasing the stress on embryos and leading to a diminish in the risk of zygotic splitting.


Neurofibromatosis_Human Genetics Meet 2019 (2)Neurofibromatosis is a rare genetic Disorder in the nervous system. In this case, benign tumors grow in the nerves and in other parts of the body which affect the growth and development of nerve cell tissue. Sometimes people with this disorder affected profoundly whereas some could barely notice the neurological problems. In this disorder is a group of three disorder in which the tumors grow in the nervous system. The three types are neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1),type 2 (NF2) neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis. Neurofibromas that occur on or under the skin, sometimes even deep within the body; these are benign (harmless) tumors; however, in rare cases, they can turn malignant or cancerous.

Neurofibromatosis is often inherited (passed on by family individuals through our genes), but around 50% of individuals recently analyzed with the disorder have no family history of the condition, which can emerge spontaneously through a mutation in the genes. Once this change has taken place, the mutant gene can be passed on to future eras.

<>In NF1 side effects include light brown spots on the skin, freckles within the armpit and crotch, small bumps inside nerves, and scoliosis.
<>Tiny growths in the iris (colored area) of the eye; these are called Lisch nodules and usually do not affect eyesight.
<>Bone deformities, including a twisted spine (scoliosis) or bowed legs
Tumors along the optic nerve, which may cause eyesight problems

<>In NF2 there may be hearing loss, cataracts at a youthful age, balance issues, flesh-colored skin flaps, and muscle wasting.
<>The tumors are generally non-cancerous.

<>In schwannomatosis isn’t well-understood it is estimated that 85 percent of cases have no known cause (“spontaneous”) and 15 percent are acquired.

<>Neurofibromatosis is diagnosed using a number of tests, including:
<>Physical examination
<>Medical history
<>Family history
<>Computerized tomography (CT) scans
<>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
<>Biopsy of neurofibromas
<>Eye tests
<>Tests for particular symptoms, such as hearing or balance tests
<>Genetic testing

World Cerebral Palsy Day 2018: How is cerebral palsy different from autism?

World Cerebral Palsy Day 2018The word “cerebral” means that it has to do with the brain. The word “paralysis” means weakness or problems with the movement of the body. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of disorders that affect muscle movement and coordination in child. In many cases vision, hearing and sensation are also affected by these diseases. It is the most common motor disability in childhood and according to estimates, approximately 1 in 323 children have been identified with CP.

Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy:

Baby 3 to 6 months of age:

  • The head falls backwards when it is lifted lying on its back
  • Feels rigid
  • Feeling floppy
  • It seems to extend too far back in the back and neck when cradled in someone’s arms
  • Legs stiffen and cross or scissors when they get up
  • Variations in muscle tone, such as being too loose or too stiff

Baby older than 6 months of age:

  • Does not turn in any direction
  • You cannot put your hands together
  • Has difficulty putting his hands to his mouth
  • It extends with one hand while holding the other fist.

Baby older than 10 months of age:

  • Creeps in a twisted way, pushing with one hand and leg while dragging opposite hand and leg
  • It moves on the buttocks or jumps on the knees, but does not crawl on four legs

Different types of cerebral palsy:

Spastic cerebral palsy: this is the most common type of disorder, affecting about 76.9% of all people with CP. Many people with spastic CP have gait abnormalities.

Cerebral dyskinetic paralysis: also known as dystonic and athetoid, is the second most common form of cerebral palsy, although it only affects about 2.6% of all cases of the disorder. People with this type of PC have problems controlling their body movements.

Hypotonic cerebral palsy: this disorder causes a decrease in muscle tone and excessively relaxed muscles. People with this type of PC also have difficulty speaking, poor reflexes and walking abnormalities.

How is cerebral palsy different from autism?

Cerebral palsy affects mainly the motor functioning of a child, while autism affects the normal development of the brain in areas such as social interaction, problem solving and communication. Autism covers a broad spectrum, from extremely mild symptoms to severe symptoms that can seriously affect daily life.

New allergy vaccine for hay fever shows promising results

w1Allergy has turned into a typical ailment, and several millions around the globe experience the ill effects of hypersensitive rhinitis, or feed fever, with distresses like colds, weakness and red, bothersome eyes. The analysts have built up an immunization that keeps the advancement of hypersensitivity in mice. It depends on particular sugar atoms that may build the impact of medications and decrease treatment times. New allergy antibody for feed fever indicates promising outcomes.

The present type of immunization can be improved. At first, the objective was to make a fake creation of the proteins on which allergy antibodies are based and to upgrade the proteins making them more compelling and quick working by utilizing sugar atoms. The long haul objective is to diminish the treatment time significantly, while in the meantime bringing down the treatment dosage.w2

Today we have immunizations for a few types of hypersensitivity, including roughage fever. Treatment in Denmark typically takes three to five years and includes standard infusions. Tragically, the immunizations don’t take a shot at everybody. Some are restored, others get less manifestations, while some experience no impact by any means. Another treatment alternative against grass dust hypersensitivity, for instance, is an oral lyophilisate to be taken day by day for a long time.w3

Birch is the test allergen of the new vaccine, which was administered as injections, on mice and in so-called in vitro tests on human cells .Allergen is the substance that can cause allergy when a person comes into contact with or ingests it. Several of the allergens — causing for example hay fever — are so-called glycoproteins. The sugar molecules were attached to the allergen to try to improve the effect of vaccination.w4

In the study that sugar molecules can be used to ensure that an allergen reaches the right cells in the immune system and increases the intake of the vaccine, improving the effect hereof. At the same time, the sugar molecules increase the activity of a different group of cells in the immune system, T cells, which help perform the functional part of the process. The next step is to test more types of sugar molecules to increase our portfolio and hopefully identify more sugar structures which can be used to further develop the vaccine platform. The researchers are seeking to further develop the vaccine to make it effective enough to be used on human allergy patients. The method of optimising a vaccine using sugar molecules — can potentially also be used to optimise treatments for other diseases. Instead of coupling sugar molecules with allergens, the researchers may simply couple it with different proteins.

Researchers are uncovering which sugar molecules are useful in connection with vaccines — and not just vaccines for allergy, but vaccines in general. This theory is based on the role of sugar molecules in the immune system’s reactions to various diseases. This method can potentially also be used within fields such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Liver disease drug could help restore cells damaged by Alzheimer’s

AlzA drug which has been utilized to treat liver disease for decades could offer assistance restore cells damaged by Alzheimer’s. Researchers discovered the drug ursodeoxycholic corrosive (UDCA) progresses mitochondrial dysfunction which is known to be a causative factor for both sporadic and familial Alzheimer’s disease. Mitochondria play a significant role in both neuronal cell survival and death as they control the vitality metabolism and cell death pathways acting as a cell’s battery, concurring to the research.

Mitochondrial abnormalities have been distinguished in numerous cell sorts in Alzheimer’s illness, with deficits occurring before the advancement of the classical pathological accumulations. The energy changes have been found in many diverse cells from people with Alzheimer’s. It is thought they are one of the earliest changes to occur within the brain cells, maybe even before side effects are detailed by individuals living with the disease. The vitality changes have been found in numerous distinctive cells from individuals with Alzheimer’s. For the primary time in actual Alzheimer’s persistent tissue, this consider has appeared that the medicate UDCA corrosive can boost the performance of the cells’ batteries, the mitochondria conjointly known as the powerhouse of the cell.

We too found that the drug, which is as of now in clinical utilize for the liver disease, acts by changing the shape of the batteries which might tell us more approximately how other drugs can be useful in Alzheimer’s. Most importantly we found the drug to be dynamic in cells from individuals with the most common sort of the obliterating illness sporadic Alzheimer’s which may mean it has the potential for thousands of patients As the drug is as of now in clinical use for liver illness; this speeds up the potential time it might take to get this drug to the clinic for patients.alz2

Alzheimer’s disease is the driving cause of dementia around the world and is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Utilizing tissue collected from diverse patients with Alzheimer’s disease, the researchers who conducted the later study affirmed that the existing drug did progress mitochondrial function. The current medicines for Alzheimer’s focus on abating down the progression of a few of these symptoms and overseeing the condition’s effect on a person’s behavior and mental state.