Cannabis use- an independent risk factor for bipolar symptoms in young adults

Cannabis has been using as a mind-altering drug from the Prehistoric times. Even today, it is a popular recreational drug around the world, only behind tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. It is commonly known as Marijuana and is the most commonly used illicit drug in youth all over the world.1

It is known that the psychoactive effects of Cannabis have three phases:

  • Primary psychoactive effect- relaxed state of euphoria because of the compound, tetrahydrocannabinol.
  • Secondary psychoactive effect- introspection, higher-order thinking, the philosophical thinking among the cases of anxiety and paranoia.
  • Tertiary psychoactive effect- increased heart rate and hunger, due to the chemical compound 11-OH-THC, the metabolite of THC produced in the liver.

It is found that the use of cannabis by adolescent results in hypomanic episodes (elevated mood) and sleep deprivation which are usually considered as symptoms of bipolar disorder and it greatly affects the daily life. Many more concerns such as memory and cognition problems and schizophrenia have been observed in young people.

The researchers analyzed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children found that the use of cannabis during the teenage results in the hypomanic symptoms in the later years.

With the frequent use of Cannabis, Cannabinoid receptors (CB1) are distributed throughout the brain and gets active in neurotransmitter release and concentrations across the nervous system. It alters the genetic expression of neural development and endocannabinoid system leading to a series of neurochemical and neurostructural aberrations which results in poorer emotional outcomes and hypomania in adulthood.

Cannabis use in youthful individuals is common and related to psychiatric disorders. Be that as it may, the imminent interfaces between cannabis use and bipolar disorder side effects have rarely been investigated.”

Cannabis is one of the foremost commonly utilized unlawful substances of abuse in western countries. Problematic utilize within the common population is as high as 9.5% within the United States, whereas 2.6% of the UK population report having been cannabis subordinate within the last year.

Scientists define key binding characteristics of protein associated with heart disease and breast cancer

Galectins can attach itself to the other proteins via the carbohydrates on their surfaces i.e. sugar-binding proteins. This impacts on a range of processes in the cell associated with several diseases, including heart disease and breast cancer.

Understanding the binding of galectins and differentiating between various sugars can help in guiding the design of new molecules that act as inhibitors, blocking the process and therefore limiting the development of certain diseases. However, researchers are trying to get the full picture and exact knowledge of the binding patterns involved in the interactions between different sugars. A knowledge of the hydrogen bond networks in the protein-sugar complexes plays an important part as it presents a better foundation in the efforts for designing a new efficient galectin inhibitor.image

The specialists in neutron and X-ray crystallography had discovered the hydrogen bonding networks in detail for the C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3.

Till now, most of our understanding of these binding processes has been guesswork as determining the positions of hydrogen atoms is extremely difficult using X-rays due to the weak scattering of hydrogen with X-rays. Even with extremely high-resolution X-ray crystallography experiments, only about half of the most ordered hydrogen atoms can be observed. Neutron crystallography is one the ideal technique that reveal the positions of hydrogen atoms and the geometry of hydrogen bonds, as hydrogen atoms scatter neutrons with approximately the same magnitude as the other elements of a protein (i.e. carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur). Hence the positions of hydrogen atoms can be directly detected with neutrons rather than X-ray crystallography where it is being inferred from the positions of heavier atoms.

The recent study demonstrates that by using neutron crystallography the positions of the hydrogen atoms and the hydrogen bonding networks can be revealed which provides a better understanding of the binding interactions involved. In addition, by determining the neutron structure of the sugar-free form of galectin-3C (apo galectin-3C) the positions and orientations of water molecules in the binding site before binding is also revealed. Hence the comparison of the apo- and sugar-bound structures enables us to observe how the interactions changes upon binding and help us to improve our understanding of the role water played in the binding process.

New Approach against Tuberculosis

1A gathering of specialists utilized a methodical way through clinical research to deal with get an altogether new take a gander at the manner in which tuberculosis taints individuals. Their investigation revealed connections amongst tuberculosis and human proteins that could give new ways to deal with battle contamination.

Tuberculosis is one of the main 10 reasons for death around the world. About 2 million individuals bite the dust each year from this irresistible ailment, and an expected 2 billion individuals are constantly tainted. The main immunization grew just about 100 years prior, offers restricted insurance and patients are ending up progressively impervious to accessible drug delivery. A gathering of specialists utilized a precise way to deal with get a completely new take a gander at the manner in which tuberculosis contaminates individuals. Their examination revealed communications amongst tuberculosis and human proteins that could give new ways to deal with the battle disease.

Tuberculosis is a complex infection, given that it’s caused by microscopic organisms made up of 4,000 qualities when contrasted with infections that for the most part have 10 or 15 qualities. Amid disease, these qualities deliver roughly 100 proteins inside human cells. In any case, as of recently, researchers knew basically nothing about what these proteins do in the body. Researchers utilized a mass spectrometry-based way to deal with distinguish collaborations between tuberculosis proteins and human proteins. Utilizing this technique, the group of researchers focused on 34 tuberculosis proteins, not very many of which had been examined previously. The researchers discovered 187 connections between these tuberculosis proteins and human proteins and every last one of those associations could at last speak to a medication target.

After their underlying discovery, they concentrated on one particular association. They contemplated the physical cooperation between the human protein CBL and a tuberculosis protein called LpqN. They demonstrated that when they expel the LpqN protein, tuberculosis can’t contaminate human cells also. Be that as it may, when the CBL protein is likewise erased, the tuberculosis disease can continue its standard development. This recommends CBL is engaged with constraining bacterial diseases.

The Deadly virus : Ebola

Ebola viral Haemorrhagic Fever is a deadly illness caused by four totally different strains of Ebola virus. This virus infects humans and anthropoid primates.       The disease has killed thousands of individuals in sub-Saharan African nations since its discovery in 1976.

The term viral haemorrhagic fever is known as it because of the within the Democratic Republic of Congo where it was initially reported. It is selected as CDC grade four thereby indicating that it’s one in all the foremost dangerous pathogens on the world.

EHF incorporates a fifty to ninety % rate, with a speedy onset of symptoms that begin with a headache and raw throat and accomplish major internal & external haemorrhage and multiple organ failure. There is no glorious cure, and therefore the most up-to-date cases were reported at the tip of 2012 in African country.

Ebola virus.

Ebola virus spreads by direct contact with blood and secretions. It is thought to unfold through close contact with bodily secretions. Early clinical diagnosis is tough because the symptoms are nonspecific; Definitive diagnostic tests for viral haemorrhagic fever are VHF is enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay and/or PCR tests; microorganism cultivation and diagnostic test samples might also be used.

There is no customary treatment available for Ebola fever; solely adjuvant medical aid and experimental treatment is offered. There are several complications from viral haemorrhagic fever VHF inflicting a high rate (reported mortality rates equal regarding 25%-100%).

Prevention of viral haemorrhagic fever VHF is difficult; early testing and isolation of the patient and barrier protection (protective equipment) for caregivers (mask, gown, goggles, and gloves) is incredibly vital to stop people from being infected.

Researchers try to grasp the Ebola virus and pinpoint its ecological reservoirs to deduce however viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks occur and to establish an efficient immunizing agent against it.

Bioartificial pancreas – A recent advancement in the treatment of Diabetes

A bioartificial pancreas—a device that supports and encapsulates islets of Langerhans— replaces the beta cells and islets which were destroyed by type 1 diabetes. Implanted in the peritoneal cavity or under the skin, it contains approximately a million islets. It responds to changing blood glucose levels by releasing hormones, mainly insulin.

Every bioartificial pancreas is manufactured from non-living and living components. The living component is the islets, which secrete insulin concurring to typical physiology by sensing glucose levels. The non-living component shields the islets from the diabetic’s body and its destructive immune mechanisms, however grants the islets inside to thrive.

There are several types of bioartificial pancreas which includes microencapsulated, or coated islets are the first-generation bioartificial pancreas. Their advantage is that nutrients can effectively move into the islets and insulin can move out. Among the downsides is that they are difficult to remove because they don’t remain in one place.

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Macroencapsulation, another type, bunches islets cells together in a larger package. Such gadgets tend to be more stable and effectively extricated, but—at slightest in their earlier capsule form—may limit the free passage of insulin and nutrients. This starves the beta cells and hinders the objective of controlling blood glucose.

There are many technical challenges associated in using bioartificial pancreas. They are

  • Avoiding the immune response. The implemented bioartificial pancreas incites a fibrotic reaction, which restricts the islets from getting nutrition and thereby bioartificial pancreas passes on of starvation.
  • Enabling oxygen to enter to the core of the device. The measurements of most bioartificial pancreases don’t permit free passage of vital oxygen.
  • Fabricating the device without harming the islets. In some cases the process destroys numerous islets for the bioartificial pancreas to function.
  • Placing the device in close proximity to blood vessels, which provide nutrients and oxygen to the islets and carry secreted insulin to the rest of the body.

Different procedures are being investigated to extend the life and efficiency of transplanted islets. A few researchers are endeavouring to construct into the device helpful biochemical nutrients that release gradually. Other are centering on the shape and configuration of the bioartificial pancreas.

 

 

Crystallization: Protein and X-Ray crystallisation

Protein crystallization is the procedure of development of a protein crystal. While some protein crystal have been seen in nature, protein crystallization is mostly utilized for logical or modern purposes, most prominently for consider by X-beam crystallography. Proteins are the natural macromolecules that are made out of long chain of amino acids. It is the procedure for the development of tiny protein crystal. This procedure is generally utilized by mechanical and logical purposes.

A protein regularly works in liquid conditions in this way protein crystallization process is for the most part completed in water. The primary objective behind protein crystallization and crystallography is to grow very much arranged protein precious stones that conquer the intrinsic delicacy of protein particles. The exploration consider inspects the protein crystallography item advertise with help of various criteria, for example, the item compose, application, and its land extension. Numerous elements, for example, immaculateness of proteins, grouping of proteins, pH, temperature of medium, may impact the procedure of protein crystallization and crystallography.

Different methods of Protein Crystallisation:

  • Vapor diffusion
  • Microbatch
  • Microdialysis
  • High throughput crystallization screening
  • Free-interface diffusion
  • x-ray diffraction

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Protein and X-ray crystallography is basically a type of terribly high resolution research. It allows us to examine super molecule structures at the atomic level and enhances our understanding of supermolecule perform. Specifically we are able to study however proteins move with alternative molecules; however they endure conformational changes, and the way they perform chemical process within the case of enzymes. Armed with this info we are able to design novel drugs that concentrate on a specific super molecule, or rationally engineer associate protein for a selected process. The crystallization of biological macromolecules has been represented in great detail. every crystallographer approached the matter in an individual way; the procedures are mostly standardized, particularly as a results of the supply of crystallization kits, in addition as robots for the preparation of solutions, setting up crystallizations

Obesity and Infertility

Obesity and Infertility

Excess weight is connected to many adverse health consequences including heart disease, diabetes, back and joint problems, and many other conditions. But now there is growing understanding that it moreover affects fertility.

Obesity affects the hormonal balance

When the Body Mass Index goes into the obese category (BMI of 30 and above), hormonal changes may happen in the body. Menstrual cycle is controlled by a fine hormonal balance. Obese and overweight women have higher levels of a hormone known as leptin, which is produced in fatty tissue. This can disrupt the hormone balance and lead to diminished fertility.

The amount and distribution of body fat influence the menstrual cycle through a run of hormonal mechanisms. The more abdominal fat and the more excess weight, the more prominent the risk of fertility difficulties.

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Obesity also leads to insulin resistance

The hormonal imbalance that comes with obesity frequently leads to insulin resistance. That is a major hazard factor for diabetes — but it also can create abnormal menstrual cycles and affects your fertility. Insulin resistance can lead to anovulation, in which female body does not produce eggs properly.

Obesity affects natural as well as assisted pregnancies

Obesity makes it more difficult to end up pregnant, even when utilizing natural ways or by artificial reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). It also enhances your risk for a miscarriage. This issue may be caused by the hormonal issues noted above or because of body producing destitute quality eggs.

Obesity decreases the partner’s fertility, too

Although much of the obesity and infertility is on women, it absolutely influences men, too. For men, obesity leads to a drop in testosterone, which can lead to infertility. On top of that, erectile dysfunction happens at a higher rate among obese men. This can be likely due to a combination of factors. These include hormonal issues, sexual dysfunction and other well-being conditions linked to obesity such as sleep apnoea and type 2 diabetes.

Chances of success can be improved by losing weight. As you lose weight, the hormonal imbalances and other impacts of obesity begin to diminish. Start on a healthy path by incorporating positive way of life changes which includes regular exercise and more advantageous nourishment choices.

Fabrication of Nanostructured Arrays on Polymer Films

 The development of Fabrication of Nanostructured Arrays on Polymer Films is a creation procedure for varieties of nanostructures (e.g., nanocones) on adaptable polymer films. The manufacture procedure takes into consideration the nanocone clusters to be made on an expansive scale (e.g., 10-100 sq. inches) on an adaptable polymer film by means of a two-advance process. The initial step comprises of self-gathering a layer of polymer microspheres or nano spheres on an alternate polymer film. The second step comprises of the concurrent differential carving of the polymer circles and film to make the nanostructured surface. The resultant nanocone exhibits would then be able to be covered by an ultrathin metal, polymer, oxide, or semiconductor film or nanoparticles. The subsequent nanostructured surfaces have exceptional optical and wetting properties, and the thin movies are sufficiently adaptable to coat bended or convoluted surfaces.

Varieties of nanostructures composed on surfaces are exceedingly fascinating because they can display one of a kind surface property, for example, basic radiance, hostile to reflectivity, superhydrophobicity, improved synergist action and coupled plasmonic optical resonances. These nanostructured surfaces can be possibly actualized as fundamental parts in an assortment of essential application gadgets including biosensors, against intelligent coatings, sun powered boards, self-cleaning surfaces, and bactericidal surfaces. There is a neglected requirement for an economical, basic, fast, and versatile innovation to functionalize extensive surface territories with nanostructures in the zones of therapeutic diagnostics, vitality enterprises and military businesses – even possibly for regular articles (e.g., auto, garments).

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Techniques that use “top-down” manufacture, for example, centered particle shaft scratching and e-pillar lithography can be utilized to make metallic, semiconductor and oxide nanostructures with exact control, however are exorbitant, moderately moderate and constrained altogether realistic organized region. Moreover, objects with bended surfaces or complex shapes can’t be utilized. The UCI scientists have built up another two-advance manufacture process for making nanostructure clusters on thin polymer films that is anything but difficult to actualize, reasonable, flexible, and quick.

 

Polymer Science Applied to Petroleum Production

The petroleum industry is composed of various upstream and downstream segments, from prospecting for oil to production of petrochemicals. The Petrochemical sector produces polymers and monomers, which are applied in a wide range of sectors, including the petroleum industry which uses a wide array of oligomer and polymer products.

The polymer materials used in the oil industry can be classified into two large categories: first one is solid-state polymers, such as engineering materials, and second one is polymers in solution, employed as components of fluids or additive formulations. Engineering materials include those classified as plastics, fibers, and elastomers in general, for use on offshore platforms, construction of pipelines and floating structures, among others. In solution, polymers are added to either fluids or formulations to increase their properties and are used in many oil production operations, such as drilling, cementing, completion, production itself, and treatment of oil and water. Generally various polymers, oligomers, and macromolecules have been evaluated for their efficiency in specific functions.

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The development of a polymer additive with specific performance generally requires synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of its properties are physical, chemical, and/or physicochemical besides application tests. Based on the experience acquired in synthesis and characterization of copolymers, as well as in studying their physicochemical properties and behaviour of their interfaces, our research group is dedicated to the development of the new polymers for application in the solution in the petroleum industry.

The knowledge gained about oil operations, allied with the scientific and technological education offered by the Institute of Macromolecules, has permitted a focus on macromolecules applied to the oil and gas sector in the postgraduate courses in polymer science and technology. oil production operations are drilling, cementing, completion, production – divergence – well stimulation – control of deposits – control of hydrates – oil recovery,  treatment of oil , treatment of systems contaminated with oil, compatibility of polymer additives It is important to mention that, despite the production of the majority of polymers being a petrochemical process widely used all over the world.

Treating nail fungus with Nanotechnology

Nail fungus known as Onychomycosis impacts millions of people worldwide causing nail disfigurement, pain, and increased risk of soft tissue infection. Treatments like topical antifungal treatments are available but treatment failure remains high due to a number of factors.

To improve its treatment, Scientists investigated the use of nanotechnology and make it more cost effective. It is noticed that when Efinaconazole is combined with the nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles, it achieves the same antifungal effects but at a fraction of the amount of the medication alone needed to impart the same effect.

Nanotechnology is being employed to better deliver established imaging and therapeutic agents in medicine and surgery fields to ultimately improve patient outcomes “A quickly emerging roadblock in patient care is, unfortunately, access to medications due to rising cost and poor insurance coverage.”

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Combination of Nanoparticle and medication are opening the door to potentially better and more tolerable treatment regimens. The additional benefit is the ability of nanoparticles to access infections in unreachable locations as penetration and retaining activity across the nail plate.

By combining them at a fraction of these concentrations we could impart the same antifungal activity at the highest concentrations tested of either alone. “The impact of this combo, highlighted their synergistic damaging effects at concentrations that would be completely safe to human cells, which we visualized using electron microscopy as compared to either product alone.

“With the results, to determine the efficacy of the treatment in a clinical setting, it is worth further researching the synergy of nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles and Efinaconazole against onychomycosis.